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Madina Book 1: Chapter 2

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chapter2

Chapter 2 introduces the masculine demonstrative pronoun ذَلِكَ and its principles


Part 1

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Vocabulary for Lesson 2

Milk

Labanun

لَبَنٌ

Sugar

Sukkarun

سُكَّرٌ

A Rock

Hajarun

حَجَرٌ

An Imam (Prayer Leader)

Imamun

إِمَامٌ

Introduction to Nominal Sentence:

In English this can be a simple example e.g. "That is a boy."

In Arabic we start with a two word Nominal Sentence and it consists of the first word being Subject مُبْتَدَأ and the second word being Predicate خَبَر

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر(Khabar) will both match in case ending i.e. they will be Marfoo
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in gender i.e. if the first word is masculine, the second one will also be masculine and vice versa
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in Plurality i.e. if the first word is singular, the second one will also be singular and if the first word is feminine then second word will also be feminine

So lets recap the ONLY AREA where the two words will NOT match in a simple nominal sentence:

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) is always definite & خَبَر (Khabar) will usually be indefinite.

We will return to this concept in the future lessons.

What is تِلْكَ/ذَلِكَ?

Recall from the previous lesson that Arabic has three parts of speech and they are as follows:

1 اسم (Ism or Noun): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and do not afford a tense e.g. "Masjidun" i.e. you know what this word means and it has no association with time. Pronouns are also included in this category.

2 حرف (Harf or particle): This category is defined as those words that do not impart a meaning on their own e.g. "Waa" i.e. you would not know what "Waa" means on its own unless and until you join some words to the right and left of it.

3 فعل (Fi'l or verb): This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and afford a tense e.g. "Abada (He worshipped)" i.e. you know that this refers to the action of worshipping which occurred in the past

 

ذَلِكَ is the masculine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to far objects and it is always definite.

تِلْكَ is the feminine demonstrative pronoun for pointing to far objects and it is always definite.

The Arabic term for "demonstrative pronoun for pointing to far objects" is:

أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْبَعِيد

How to construct a sentence using تِلْكَ/ذَلِكَ ?

In order to construct a simple nominal sentence you just have to insert a second indefinite word after the pronoun and it becomes a perfectly good sentence. The second word of the sentence has to follow three rules:

1 It has to be Marfoo: The default state of a word is Nominative case or the State of Rafa or Marfoo and the last letter of the word will carry a Tanween (Dammatain) or in case of a definite word a single Damma = كتابٌ

 

2 It has to match the gender of the first word

 

3 It has to be indefinite.

 

Using ذَلِكَ

 

e.g. to say “That is a Masjid” it is:

 

ذَلِكَ مَسْجِدٌ

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

1ذَلِكَ Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for near object

 

2مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:


aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

"That a Masjid"

 

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 "That is a Masjid"

Usingتِلْكَ 

 

 

To say “That is a Girl” it is:

تِلْكَ بنْتٌ

The analysis of this sentence is as follows:

1تِلْكَ Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for near objects


2بنْتٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:


aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 

"That a Girl"

 

4The English word “is” or the copula doesn’t exist in Arabic so it is manually inserted making the accurate translation to be:

 "That is a Girl"

Exercise:

Make five (5) sentences using ذَلِكَ as the first first word and then select any five masculine words as the second word (of the sentence) from the vocbulary table.


أَسْمُ الْأِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيب
 

Part 2

How to turn a sentence using تِلْكَ/ذَلِكَ  into a question?

This is done by inserting a particle of interrogation before the nominal sentence. The particle of interrogation is أَ and its Arabic term is:

حرفُ الاستفهامِ

Consider our previous two examples turned into questions:

Using ذَلِكَ

e.g. to say “Is that a Masjid?” it is:

  أَ ذَلِكَ مَسْجِدٌ؟

The analysis of this question is as follows:

1أَ Is particle of interrogation


2ذَلِكَ Is a masculine demonstrative pronoun for far objects


3مَسْجِدٌ Is Khabar therefore it is:


 

{jb_bluedisc}a{/jb_bluedisc\}Marfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cMasculine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 "Is that a Masjid?"

Usingتِلْكَ 

 

 

To say “Is that a Girl?” it is:

 

أَ  تِلْكَ بنْتٌ ؟

The analysis of this question is as follows:

1أَ Is particle of interrogation


2تِلْكَ  Is a feminine demonstrative pronoun for far objects


3بنْتٌ  Is Khabar therefore it is:


aMarfoo

 

bIndefinite

 

cFeminine because it has to match the Gender of the first word (i.e. the pronoun)

 

3The Arabic setence literally means:

 "Is that a Girl?"


Using نَعَمْ/لَا

Before answering the “Is that” question, similar to English you need to confirm by using “Yes/No” and then state the facts e.g:

1 Is that a Book?

a Yes, That is a Book

OR

b No, That is a Pen

 

Exercise:

Turn the five (5) sentences which you made in the previous exercise into questions.


Part 3

How to ask questions using مَا/مَنْ ?

As part of a conversation you may have to initiate a question using “What” or “Who”. In Arabic it is achieved by using the following terms:

مَا


مَا ذَلِكَ ؟

مَا تِلْكَ ؟


Used for things which are deemed not to have intelligence

مَنْ


مَنْ ذَلِكَ؟

مَنْ تِلْكَ ؟


Used for things which are deemed to have intelligence e.g:

 

1 Humans

 

2 Jinns

 

3 Angels

 

Exercise:

Can you first ask "What/Who" in Arabic and then answer your questions by using vocabulary from the Lesson?


Part 4

And in Arabic i.e وَ:

 

The function of "And" or the combining of two statements is done by using the letterوَ which is known in Arabic as:

حَرفُ العَطَف

 


Student work:

Concepts of Lesson 2 have been introduced, students should now be able to do the work using the vocabulary table given and complete the Lesson. Remember that your job is not to merely translate but analyse, break down the sentence and then translate

مَا ذَلِكَ؟
ذَلِكَ نَجْمٌ

هَـٰذَا مَسْجِدٌ وَذلِكَ بَيْتٌ


هَـٰذَا حِصَانٌ وَذلِكَ حِمارٌ

أَذَلِكَ كَلْبٌ؟
لا، ذَلِكَ قِطٌٌ

مَا ذَلِكَ؟
ذَلِكَ سَرِيرٌ

مَنْ هَـٰذَا وَمَنْ ذَلِكَ؟
هَـٰذَا مُدَرَّسٌ وَذَلِكَ إِِمَامٌ

مَا ذَلِكَ؟
ذَلِكَ حَجَرٌ