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Madina Book 1: Chapter 3

chapter3

Chapter 3 introduces the concept of definite and indefinite


Part 1

Resources

Download Book 1

Download Book 1 Key

Download Book 1 Solutions

Download Book 1 Handouts

Download Book 1 Vocabulary

Download Past Tense

Download Present Tense

Type Arabic onscreen with an oline Keyboard

 

Vocabulary

Chapter 3: Vocabulary

Cold

Baaridun

بَارِدٌ

Hot

Har'run

حَارٌّ

Sitting

Jaalisun

جَالِسٌ

Standing

Waaqifun

وَاقِفٌ

New

Jadeedun

جَدِيدٌ

Old

Qadeemun

قَدِيمٌ

Near

Qareebun

قَرِيبٌ

Far

Ba'eedun

بَعِيدٌ

Clean

Nadheefun

نَظِيفٌ

Dirty

Wasikhun

وَسِخٌ

Small

Sagheerun

صَغِيرٌ

Big/Large

Kabeerun

كَبِيرٌ

Light

Khafeefun

َخَفِيفٌ

Heavy

Thaqeelun

ثَقِيلٌ

Beautiful (Male)

Jameelun

جَمِيلٌ

A Rich (Male)

Ghani'un

غَنِيٌّ

A Poor (Male)

Faqeerun

فَقِيرٌ

A Short (Male)

Qaseerun

قَصِيرٌ

A Rich (Male)

Taweelun

طَوِيلٌ

A Shop

Dukkanun

دُّكَّانٌ

A Page

Waraqun

وَرَقٌ

Water

Ma'un

مَاءٌ

A Patient (Male)

Mareedun

مَرِيضٌ

An Apple

Tuf-fahun

تُفَّاحٌ

Sweet

Hulwun

حُلْوٌ

Broken

Maksurun

مَكْسُورٌ

A Stone (Rock)

Hajarun

حَجَرٌ

How to make a Noun definite:

By default a noun in Arabic is always indefinite and it is made definite by prefixing "ال" to it and when "ال"is added one of the vowels (e.g. one of the Dammas, Fathas or Kasras) drops out e.g.

المسجدُ, الرسُولُ , الرَبُّ , المَدرَسِةُ

It is essential that the second vowel on the last letter is dropped and in our experience, this is a critical mistake that many students make by having "ال" and also Dammatain, Fathatain & Kasratain on the last letter.

Introduction to Nominal Sentence:

In English this can be a simple example e.g. "The boy is fat."

In Arabic we start with a two word Nominal Sentence and it consists of the first word being Subject مُبْتَدَأ and the second word being Predicate خَبَر

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر(Khabar) will both match in case ending i.e. they will be Marfoo
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in gender i.e. if the first word is masculine, the second one will also be masculine and vice versa
  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) & خَبَر (Khabar) will both match in Plurality i.e. if the first word is singular, the second one will also be singular and if the first word is feminine then second word will also be feminine

So lets recap the ONLY AREA where the two words will NOT match in a simple nominal sentence:

  • مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) is always definite & خَبَر (Khabar) will usually be indefinite.

Examples:

الْقَلَمُ مَكْسُورٌ

Analysis is as follows:

 

1 First word (Al-Qalamu) is Mubtada because it is Marfoo and definite

 

2 Second word (Maksurun) is Khabar because it is Marfoo and indefinite

Translation is "The Pen is a broken."

الْوَلَدُ جَالِسٌ وَالْمُدَرَّسُ وَاقِفٌ

Analysis is as follows:

1 First word (Al-Waladu) is Mubtada because it is Marfoo and definite

 

2 Second word (Jaalisun) is Khabar because it is Marfoo and indefinite

 

a Translation is "The Boy is Sitting."

 

1 Wa just means "AND"

 

3 First word (Al-Madarisu) is Mubtada because it is Marfoo and definite

 

4 Second word (Waaqifun) is Khabar because it is Marfoo and indefinite

 

a Translation is "The teacher is Standing."

 

Together it means, "The Boy is Sitting AND the teacher is Standing".

Exercise:

Analyse all sentences as shown in example by us above

Exercise 1 in the book is just read and write BUT REMEMBER to read with the vowel on the last letter e.g. Masjidun and not Masjid!

Exercise 2 is also read and write

Execise 3 & 4 are fill in the blanks.

 

 

الْبَابُ مَفْتُوحٌ

الْكِتَابُ جَدِيدٌ وَالْقَلَمُ قَدِيمٌ

اَلْحِمَارُ صَغِيرٌ وَالْحِصَانُ كَبِيرٌ

الْكُرْسِيٌّ مَكْسُورٌ

الْمِنْدِيلُ وَسِخٌ

الْمَاءُ بَارِدٌ

الْقَمَرُ جَمِيلٌ

الْبَيْتُ قَرِيبٌ وَالْمَسْجِدُ بَعِيدٌ

الْحَجَرُ ثَقِيلٌ وَالْوَرَقُ خَفِيفٌ

اللَّبَنُ حَارٌّ

الْقَمِيصُ نَظِيفٌ

 


Part 2

Introduction to detached Pronouns الضمائر المنفصلة

As the term itself is giving a clue that these are pronouns which are detached from a noun and appear on their own e.g consider the following two sentences in English:

 

1 Muhammad (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is a Prophet.

 

2 He (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is a Prophet.

 

In addition to the introduction of "Detached Pronouns" we are also introducing a technique for memorisation. Research has shown that we (humans) memorise by making links in our mind and by the process of association. Many students give up Arabic because they find it hard to memorise table upon table!

--> At this point, we would like you to flip your right hand so your right thumb is pointing your right. Look at your thumb and your fingers as that is a natural mechanism given to us by Allah (SWT) for you to make an association, link and memorise tables in Arabic.

 

-->  Starting with your right index finger (your finger of Shahadah) you will notice that your finger has three pores (top, middle and bottom). This corresponds to "HE, THEM (2 HE's), THEY (more than 3 HE's).

 

--> Your next finger also has three pores and this corresponds to "SHE, THEM (2 SHE's), THEY (more than 3 SHE's).

 

-->  Your next finger also has three pores and this corresponds to "YOU (MASCULINE), YOU (2 MASCULINE), YOU (more than 3 MASCULINE YOU's).

 

--> That leaves your pinky finger also has three pores and this corresponds to "YOU (FEMININE), YOU (2 FEMININE), YOU (more than 3 FEMININE YOU's).

 

--> Finally your thumb ONLY has two pores this corresponds to "I" and "We"

 

Job done...

 

Now look at the pronouns below and read on your fingers 5 times. Ignore the attached pronouns for the time being. We have drawn a picture for you to understand this memorisation technique even further.

Arabic Practice 1

Detached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

He

Huwa

هُو

Them (2 He)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ He)

Hum

هُم

Third

Person

Feminine

She

Hiya

هِيَ

Them (2 She)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ She)

Hunna

هُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

You (Male)

Anta

أنتَ

You (2, Male)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+ Male)

Antum

أنتُم

Second

Person

Feminine

You (Female)

Anti

أنتِ

You (2, Female)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+, Female)

Antunna

أنتُنَّ

First

Person

I

Anna

أنَا

We

Nahnu

نَحنُ


Part 3

Introduction to Sun and the Moon letters

The letters of the Arabic alphabet are divided into two groups - Sun and Moon letters. This is important when the word begins with "ال" .

The sun letters are:

When "ال" is followed by one of the sun letters, the"ل"sound (lam) becomes silent and the following sun letter is pronounced in its place.

ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن

الشمسُ is pronounced as "Ash-Shamsu" and not "Al-Shamsu"

The moon letters are:

ء ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق أ ك م ه و ي

This is important when the word begins with "ال" .When "ال"is followed by one of the moon letters, the "ل"sound (lam) is pronounced!

القمرُ is pronounced as "Al-Qamaru" and not "Aq-Qamaru"