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Madina Book 1: Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 introduces the concept of Prepositions in Arabic


Part 1

Resources

Download Book 1

Download Book 1 Key

Download Book 1 Solutions

Download Book 1 Handouts

Download Book 1 Vocabulary

Download Past Tense

Download Present Tense

Type Arabic onscreen with an oline Keyboard

 

Look at the pronouns below and read on your fingers 7 times. Ignore the attached pronouns for the time being. We have drawn a picture for you to understand this memorisation technique even further.

Arabic Practice 1

Detached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

He

Huwa

هُو

Them (2 He)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ He)

Hum

هُم

Third

Person

Feminine

She

Hiya

هِيَ

Them (2 She)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ She)

Hunna

هُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

You (Male)

Anta

أنتَ

You (2, Male)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+ Male)

Antum

أنتُم

Second

Person

Feminine

You (Female)

Anti

أنتِ

You (2, Female)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+, Female)

Antunna

أنتُنَّ

First

Person

I

Anna

أنَا

We

Nahnu

نَحنُ


Part 2

Vocabulary

The School

Al-Madrasatu

الْمَدْرَسَةُ

The University

Al-Jamiatu

الْجَامِعَةُ

China

As-Seenu

الصِّيْنُ

Japan

Al-Yaabanu

الْيَابَانُ

India

Al-Hindu

الْهِنْدُ

The Director

Al-Mudeeru

الْمُدِيْرُ

The Room

Al-Ghurfatu

الْغُرْفَةُ

The Washroom

Al-Hammamu

الْحَمَّامُ

The Toilet

Al-Mirhadu

الْمِرْحَاضُ

The Kitchen

Al-Matbakhu

الْمَطْبَخُ

The Classroom

Al-Faslu

الْفَصْلُ

The Bed

As-Sareeru

السَّرِيرُ

(Male) Doctor

Tabeebun

طَبِيبٌ

(Male) Engineer

Muhandisun

مُهَنْدِسٌ

Hospital (Feminine Word)

Al-Mastashfa

الْمُسْتَشْفَىٰ

(Male) Intelligent Person

Dhaki'un

ذَكِيٌّ

(Male) Hardworker

Mujtahidun

مُجْتَهِدٌ

(Female) Nurse

Mumaridatun

مُمَرِّضَةٌ

Mother

Ummun

أُمٌّ

He Left (Verb, not a noun!)

Kharaja

خَرَجَ

He Went (Verb, not a noun!)

Dhahaba

ذَهَبَ

So far we have learned about the simple nominal sentence in the Arabic consists of two words (two nouns) classified as follows (lets' recap, Insha'Allah):

 

1 First word is مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) or subject or you can also call it the topic of the sentence. It is always Marfoo and always definite.

 

2 Second word is خَبَر (Khabar) or predicate or you can also call it the topic of the comment. It is always Marfoo and usually indefinite.

 

In this lesson you will learn about sentences in the Arabic consisting of three words.

 

1 First word will مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) or subject

 

2 Remaining two words will be خَبَر (Khabar) but you will need to break down the two words and assign a name to each.

 

a The first (of the two remaining) words will be a preposition (Harf-Jar in Arabic)

 

b and the second (of the two remaining) words will be Ism-Majroor.

 

The following four (4) Prepositions are introduced in this Lesson:

 

On

Ala

عَلَىٰ

In

Fi

فِي

To

Ila

إِلَىٰ

From

Min

مِنْ

 

Whenever a preposition comes in Arabic the next words takes a Kasrah (Zair) and the state of it is no longer called "Marfoo" but its called "Majroor"

اللهُ

Allahu is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "To Allah" it becomes:

إِلَىٰ اللهِ

Al-Madinatu (The city of Madina) is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "In the city of Madina" it becomes:

المَدينَةُ

فِي المَدينَةِ

Al-Janntu (The Paradise) is Marfoo because the last letter has Damma but when I want to say "From the Paradise" it becomes:

اَلجَنَّةُ

مِنْ اَلجَنَّةِ

REMEMBER THAT IN THIS TWO WORD COMBINATION

 

a The first (of the two remaining) words will be a preposition (Harf-Jar in Arabic)

 

b and the second (of the two remaining) words will be Ism-Majroor.

 

This is one of the simplest patterns to learn and identify in the Qur'aan and you will see it over and over again.

Exercise:

 

1 Here is the Book: http://www.4shared.com/document/S0daXA1J/Madina_Book_1.html

 

2 Here is your Arabic Keyboard to type http://www.arabic-keyboard.org/

 

3 Look at your first homework (Lesson 0 & 1) , write five (5) words by themselves in their default Marfoo state and then insert appropriate "Harf-Jar" and remember to convert the second word into Majroor state.

 

4 Also write the meanings

 

5 When reading the Qur'aan pay attention to the four (4) Harf-Jar's which you have learnt and watch how the next word is also Majroor!

 


Part 3

Full Grammatical Inflection vs DIP-TOTES:

Consider the word Muhammad (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) in the following three examples with the same word appearing with three separate types of vowels:

لَآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللّٰهِؕ

اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لَّآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا اللہُ وَحْدَهٗ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدً اعَبْدُهٗ وَرَسُوْلُهٗؕ

اللھم صلی علی محمدٍ و علی آل محمدٍ کما صلیت علی ابراھیم و علی آل ابراھیم انک حمید مجید

Now, consider the usage of the word "Khalid" in the English language:

1 Khalid saw me

 

2 I saw Khalid

 

3 Khalid's son

 

The sequence of the word Khalid in the first two examples indicates that Khalid did something in the first sentence while something happened to Khalid in the second sentence, while the usage of an apostrophe indicates possession in the third sentence. In English the entire meaning changes the minute you rearrange Khalid e.g.:

 

1 I saw Khalid

 

2 Khalid saw I

 

Are two completely different scenarios!

In Arabic this is achieved by the vowel on the last letter which gives Arabic unprecedented flexibility in sequencing i.e. as long the "د"on Khalid has the right vowel (e.g. Dammatain, Fathatain or Kasratain) Khalid can be placed anywhere in the sentence and the meaning will be conveyed accurately e.g.:

خالدٌ

with Fathatain (two Fathaas) an Alif is added and the vowels are placed on it

خالداً

خالدٍ

This Level 1 course will primarily deal with the following three (3) states described below:

 

1 The default state of a word is Nominative case or the State of Rafa or Marfoo and the last letter of the word will carry a Tanween (Dammatain) or in case of a definite word a single Damma = كتابٌ


 

2 This is the Accusative case or the State of Nasab or Mansoob كتاباً , with the last letter of the word carrying a Tanween (Fathatain) or in case of a definite word a single Fatha

 

3 This is the Genitive case or the State of Jar or Majroor, with the last letter of the word carrying a Tanween (Kasratain) or in case of a definite word a single Kasrah كتابٍ


Rule 1 (Arabic Nouns are Marfoo):

By default, Arabic Nouns Marfoo and something happens to the word for it to become Mansoob or Majroor so it is safe to pronounce most words with a Dammatain on the last letter e.g:

 مسجدٌ, رسُولٌ , رَبٌّ , مَدرَسِةٌ

Tanween on the last letter also means that the noun is indefinite!

It is essential that the vowel on the last letter is pronounced and in our experience, this is a critical mistake that many students make!

Definite vs. Indefinite:

In English, consider the following two cases:

 

1 (An) Apple

 

2 The Apple

 

The first case is about any apple while the second is about a particular apple.

Rule 2 (How to make a Noun definite):

By default a noun in Arabic is always indefinite and it is made definite by prefixing "ال" to it and when "ال"is added one of the vowels (e.g. one of the Dammas, Fathas or Kasras) drops out e.g.

المسجدُ, الرسُولُ , الرَبُّ , المَدرَسِةُ

It is essential that the second vowel on the last letter is dropped and in our experience, this is a critical mistake that many students make by having "ال" and also Dammatain, Fathatain & Kasratain on the last letter.

A normal word declines properly in Arabic and the last letter of the word carries the proper vowel sign i.e. "Damma", "Fatha" & "Kasra" and these words in English are called "TRIP-TOTES" i.e. they have all three states!

Names of places in Arabic which don't have "ال" only decline twice and hence they are called:

"DIP-TOTES" (as taught in Western universities)

  • Mamnoo-Minus-Sarf ممنوع من الصرف
  • Ghair Munsarif غير منصرف (in the Darul-ulooms, this word is preferred).

Watch the example of Al-Madina Al-Munawwar properly declining and in all 3 states as it is a "TRIP-TOTE"

المدينةِ

المدينةَ

المدينةُ

Now watch Makkah & Pakistan and see that they DO NOT take a Kasrah and their last two states are the same (i.e. with Fatha on the last letter) as they are "DIP-TOTES". In other words the Mansoob & Majroor states both carry a Fatha and visually look the same!

مكةَ

مكةَ

مكةُ

بَاكستَانَ

بَاكستَانَ

بَاكستَانُ

 

1 "DIP-TOTES" will be discussed much later but for right now watch out for:

 

a Place names with no "ال"!

 

b All names of Non-Arabic origin

 

c All Masculine names without "ال" and a sinle Damma (instead of Dammatain)

 


Part 4

The Past Tense:

By the Taufeeq and Mercy of Allah (SWT) we now arrive at this point of learning to tackle the "Past Tense".

The structure of past tense in English is:

  • I ATE

In English the "Subject (I)" comes first and then the "Verb (ATE)"

In Arabic it is reversed i.e:

  • ATE "I"

i.e. the verb "ATE" comes first and then the subject.

The simple past tense in Arabic consists of three words and pattern is

عَبَدَ = عَ + بَ + دَ He Worshipped

The first and third letter of a simple past tense in Arabic in this basic form will ALWAYS HAVE a Fatha but the middle letter can have a "Fatha, Kasra or Damma".

The subject (Fa'il) will ALWAYS come right after the word and it is "ATTACHED" to the verb. You can also think of subject (Fa'il) as Do'er of the action so:

Subject = Do'er = Fai'l

A verb is called "فِعْل=Fa'el" and the doer is called "فَاعِل=Fa'il"

There are two forms in the past tense which DO NOT have a "فَاعِل=Fa'il" attached to them, rather the do'er is assumed and they are:

  • 3rd person Masculine Singular e.g. He Worshipped عَبَدَ
  • 3rd person Feminine Singular e.g. She Worshipped عَبَدَتْ

Don't say that تْ is "فَاعِل=Fa'il" in "She worshipped" rather it is sign of femininity. Many students will make this mistake!

In both examples (1 & 2) "فَاعِل=Fa'il" is hidden! Please don't forget this and know that all other forms have the "فَاعِل=Fa'il" attached.

The best explaination is given by Shaykh (Maulana) Husain Sattar (HA) in book which is part of our course, the chapter on past tense can be downloaded from here:

 

1 You were taught a specific drill on how to memorise pronouns using your fingers, use the same technique for memorising past tense as well.


2 Download the book and read the chapter above upto PRINCIPLE 3

 

3 DO NOT READ PRINCIPLE 4, 5, 6 at this point.

 

4 Practise the table on page 20 using the hand drill

 

Shaykh (Maulana) Husain Sattar (HA) 's lesson and explaination in grammar is regarded as the TOP in the Western world so there is no way that we can top that! Please read the attached document to understand simple past tense.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE AND ITS BREAKDOWN

Person

Gender

Meaning

Subect or Doer or فَاعِل

Base Form

Verb or Fa'el or فِعْل

3rd Person

Masculine

He did

"Assumed to be he but not physcially written"

فَعَلَ

فَعَلَ

They (2) did

ا

فَعَلَ +

فَعَلاَ

Those (3+) did

وْا

فَعَلَ +

فَعَلُوْا

Feminine

She did

"Assumed to be she but not physcially written"

فَعَلَ 

فَعَلَتْ

They (2) did

تَا

فَعَلَ +

فَعَلَتَا

Those (3+) did

نَ

فَعَلَ +

فَعَلْنَ

2nd Person

Masculine

You did

تَ

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتَ

You (2) did

تُمَا

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتُمَا

You (3+) did

تُمْ

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتُمْ

Feminine

You did

تِ

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتِ

You (2) did

تُمَا

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتُمَا

You (3+) did

تُنَّ

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتُنَّ

1st Person

Masculine/Feminine

I did

تُ

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْتُ

Masculine/Feminine

We did

نَا

فَعَلْ +

فَعَلْنَا

 


Part 5

You have also learned four particles which are used for asking questions in Arabic and they are:

Is?

A'a

أَ

Where?

A'ina

أَيْنَ

Who?

Man

مَنْ

What?

Ma

مَا

 

After all this revision lets get to Lesson 4:

 You should carefully watch and learn how the Marfoo state of the word changes to Majroor due to the insertion of preposition (i.e. Harf-Jaar).

Recall:

1 First word will مُبْتَدَأ (Mubtada) or subject

2 Remaining two words will be خَبَر (Khabar) but you will need to break down the two words and assign a name to each.

 

a The first (of the two remaining) words will be a preposition (Harf-Jar in Arabic)

 

b and the second (of the two remaining) words will be Ism-Majroor.

 

Remember that we don't analyse the questions grammatically just translate it "AS-IS" but before translating the statements, remember to analyse them first.

أَيْنَ مُحَمَّدٌ؟

هُو فِي الْغُرْفَةِ

وَأَيْنَ يَاسِرٌ؟

هُو فِي الحَمَّامِ

وَأَيْنَ آمِنةُ؟

هِيَ فِي الْمَطْبَخِ

أَيْنَ الْكِتَابُ؟

هُو عَلَىٰ الْمَكْتَبِ

وَأَيْنَ السَّاعَةُ؟

هِيَ عَلَىٰ السَّرِيرِ

 

Exercise:

WRITE down, analyse and translate all of these sentenses, above!

 


أَيْنَ الْكِتَابُ؟

أَيْنَ مُحَمَّدٌ؟

أَيْنَ السَّاعَةُ؟

أَيْنَ يَاسِرٌ؟

أَيْنَ آمِنةُ؟

أَآمِنَةُ فِي الْغُرْفَةِ؟

أَيَاسِرٌ فِي الْمَطْبَخِ؟

مَنْ فِي الْغُرْفَةِ ؟

و مَنْ فِي الحَمَّامِ ؟

مَاذَا عَلَىٰ الْمَكْتَبِ؟

مَاذَا عَلَىٰ السَّرِيرِ؟

Exercise:

WRITE down, analyse and translate all of these sentenses, above!

 


Part 6

Verbal Sentence:

A Jumla Fai'lliya is a "Verbal sentence" which starts with a Verb and the structure is ALWAYS:

 

1 Verb

 

2 Subject: This is always "Marfoo" i.e. will have Damma on the last letter

 

3 Object: This is always "Mansoob" i.e. will have Fatha on the last letter

 

As soon as you see a Verb start looking for a subject. Arabic grammar books are filled with extensive and complex explanation for this rule but Shaykh (Maulana) Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) writes that instead of giving long and complex explainations to the student, give an example from the Qur'aan as the students will NOT make a mistake! So here it is:

قَتَلَ دَاوُدُ جَالُوتَ

[2:251] ...Killed Dawud Jalut ...

In this verse:

قَتَلَ is the verb "He Killed"

دَاوُدُ is the subject i.e. Sayyidina Dawood (AS) who killed and note that the word is Marfoo

جَالُوتَ is the object i.e. Jalut got killed and note that the word is Mansoob

So the issue of verbal sentence solved FOREVER by you knowing one verse of the Qur'aan


Part 7

Part B of Lesson 4 brings it all together, please pay attention to the words in RED as to how they change from their default Marfoo position into Majroor and also look at the usage of و and translated it as "And"

الْمَدْرَسُ: مِنْ أَيْنَ أَنْتَ؟

مُحَمَّدٌ : أَنَا مِنَ الْيَابَانِ

الْمَدْرَسُ: وَمِنْ أَيْنَ عَمَّارٌ؟

مُحَمَّدٌ : هُوَ مِنَ الصِّيْنِ

الْمَدْرَسُ: وَمِنْ أَيْنَ حَامَدٌ؟

مُحَمَّدٌ : هُوَ مِنَ اَلْهِنْدِ

الْمَدْرَسُ: أَيْنَ عَبَّاسٌ؟

مُحَمَّدٌ : خَرَجَ

خَرَجَ is a verb and as you will recall from the table given above that the subject is NOT ATTACHED and it is assumed and implied in the 3rd person singular masculine form.

الْمَدْرَسُ: أَيْنَ ذَهَبَ؟

مُحَمَّدٌ : ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ اَلْمُدِيرِ

ذَهَبَ is a verb and as you will recall from the table given above that the subject is NOT ATTACHED and it is assumed and implied in the 3rd person singular masculine form.

الْمَدْرَسُ: وَأَيْنَ ذَهَبَ عَلِيٌّ؟

ذَهَبَis a verb and it is shown that the subject can be added as a separate word and in the question above عَلِيٌّ is the subject. When the subject is added it is always "Marfoo"

مُحَمَّدٌ : ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ اَلمِرْحَاضِ

Exercise: Practise and memorise.

خَرَجَ (went out) is a verb and as you will recall from the table given above that the subject is NOT ATTACHED and it is assumed and implied in the 3rd person singular masculine form. Due to the meaning of the verb generally and very often the preposition "مِنْ (from)" is used so the combination usually is

خَرَجَ مِنْ

ذَهَبَ (Went) is a verb and as you will recall from the table given above that the subject is NOT ATTACHED and it is assumed and implied in the 3rd person singular masculine form. Due to the meaning of the verb generally and very often the preposition "إِلَىٰ (to)" is used so the combination usually is

ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ

Exercise: Read, write, translate and put the correct vowel (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter which is highlighted in RED.

مِنْ أَيْنَ فَاطمة؟ هَي مِنَ الهند

خَرَج اَلمُدَرِّس مِنَ الفصل و ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ المُدِير

Here, please explain the reason for putting the (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter of the word after the verb!

ذَهَبَ التَّاجِر إِلَىٰ الدُّكٌّان

Here, please explain the reason for putting the (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter of the word after the verb!

خَرَج حَامِد مِنَ الغُرفَة و ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ الحَمَّام

Here, please explain the reason for putting the (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter of the word after the verb!

مَنْ خَرَج مِنَ الفصل ؟

Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition and put the correct vowel (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter which is highlighted in RED.

الْكِتَابُ . . . . . الْمَكْتَبِ

الطَّالِبُ . . . . . الفصل

ذَهَبَ حَامِد . . . . اَلْجَامِعَة

خَرَج المُدِير . . . اَلمَدرَسة

ذَهَبَ مُحَمَّد . . . الصِّين . . . اليَابَان

Pplease explain the reason for putting the (Damma, Fatha or Kasra) on the last letter of the word after the verb!