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Tawassul and it's position in Islam

tawassul

Many contemporaries have mixed both these forms up; a) asking directly from the deceased and, b) asking Allah Alone, through the medium of some deceased) and have passed one ruling of Shirk for both forms. This is clearly a gross oversight on their path.


Tawassul and it's position in Islam

By Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Question: I am told that waseela is permitted as long as we do not address our needs directly to anyone other than Allah. It is also said that if this precaution is taken then one could ask a Prophet or a saint to pray to Allah on our behalf or conversely we could ask Allah to accept our duas for the sake of his Prophets and/or the auliyas. As the Prophets are not alive how do we make waseela through them ? If waseela is ja'iz through Prophets then does that mean waseela through people who have passed away is permitted ? Is it permitted to make ziyarat of the graves of the Prophets other than Sallahu alaihi wassallam and other auliyas ?What is your opinion about the book AR-Rah written by ibn Al Qayyim Al Jauziah ?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Please see below our detailed answer on Tawassul.

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

TAWASSUL

Q: With regards to asking the dead or the absent to supplicate to Allah on our behalf, what is the understanding of the Ulama about this issue?

Tawassul and Waseelah literally means to make a request or supplicate through a means. It is permissible for one to request Allah Ta'ala to accept his du'aa through the medium of some deeds or the rank of certain individuals as this may be closer to acceptance.

There are various forms of Tawassul and Waseela:

1 To make Tawassul to Almighty Allah that He accepts the Du'aa due to one having performed a certain good deed is permissible and unanimously accepted. It is supported by the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari in which three people were trapped in a cave. Each of them made Du'aa to Allah Ta'ala to move the obstructing rock and they requested Allah Ta'ala to accept their du'aas due to some good deed that each of them had done.

2 To make Tawassul with the names and attributes of Almighty Allah: This is also permissible and is supported by the following verse, 'And Allah has beautiful names, so call unto Him through them.' (Surah A'araaf v.180). Example: If someone says, 'Oh Allah, I ask you through your attributes and beautiful names to grant my specific wish.'

3 To make Tawassul to Allah Ta'ala through the rank and position of certain individuals, alive or deceased, in the sight of Almighty Allah This includes the Prophets [alayhimus salaam], the martyrs and any other pious servant of Allah. Example: If one says, 'Oh Allah, I beseech you to accept my du'aa due to the status of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] in Your eyes.' This form of Tawassul is also permissible according to the vast majority of the Ulama (scholars) and it has in fact remained part of their practise.

4 Some scholars even mention a fourth type of Tawassul, where a person requests some living pious servant of Allah to make du'aa for him: This is also unanimously accepted.

The only type of Tawassul that is disputed is number3, where one makes Tawassul through individuals that are alive or deceased by saying, 'O Allah, I besech you to accept my Du'aa due to the status that Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] (or some other pious person) hold in Your eyes.' The first opposition against this form of Tawassul was in the 7th century of Islam. (shifaa-u-siqaam)

There are numerous proofs that support the permissibility of Tawassul through individuals. The following are some substantiations:

1 Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] narrates that once a blind person came to Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] and said:

  'O Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam]! Ask Allah to cure me.' Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] replied, 'If you wish I will make Du'aa or else you may be patient and this is better for you.' The man said, 'Make Du'aa instead', Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] then commanded him to make Wudhu properly and that he recites the following Du'aa, 'Oh Allah, verily, I ask of you and I turn to you through your prophet, the prophet of mercy, O Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], verily, I have turned to my Lord through you so that my need be fulfilled. Oh Allah, accept his intercession on my behalf.' (Musnad Ahmad vol.4 pg.138; Sunan Tirmidhi; Sunan ibn Majah; Mustadrak Haakim and others). Imaams Tirmidhi, ibn Khuzaymah and Haakim have classified this Hadith as authentic. The words, 'I turn to you through your prophet' clearly proves Tawassul through the position of a person. Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] also told him that he should make the same supplication whenever he needed to. (al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen pg.145)

2 Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] taught this du'aa to someone after the demise of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam]. That person's need was also fulfilled.

Abu Umaamah ibn Sahl ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that a person requested Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Affaan [radhiallaahu anhu] to fulfil his need. Sayyiduna Uthmaan [radhiallaahu anhu] did not attend to him. The person complained to Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] about his plight. Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Hunayf [radhiallaahu anhu] told him to make Wudhu, go to the Musjid, offer 2 Rakaats of Salaat and recite the following Du'aa: 'O Allah, verily I ask you and I turn to you through our prophet, the prophet of mercy (Rasulullah - sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). O Muhammad! Verily, I have turned to our Lord through you so that He may fulfil my need.' The person then went to Sayyiduna Uthmaan ibn Affaan [radhiallahu anhu] who then [radhiallaahu anhu] immediately fulfilled his need and told him to return whenever he had any need in the future. (al-Mu'jamus sagheer vol.1 pg.184; al-Mu'jamul Kabeer vol.9 pg.17; Dalaailun-nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.6 pg.167-168)

Imaam Tabrani has mentioned that this Hadith is authentic. (al-Mu'jamus sagheer vol.1 pg.184). Allamah Mahmood Zaahid Al- Kawthari has also classified the chains of Baihaqi to be Saheeh (authentic). (Maqaalatul-Kawthari pg.391). For a detailed analysis refer to al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumarie pgs.141-157; Raf'ul Manaarah of Shaykh Mahmood Sa'eed Mamdooh pgs.125-131

3 Sayyiduna Anas ibn Maalik [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that when the mother of Sayyiduna Ali [radhiallahu anhu] passed away (Faatima bint Asad - radhiallaahu anha], Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] made the following Du'aa before burying her:

'O Allah, The One who gives life and death, and Who is living and will never die, forgive my mother Faatima bint Asad [radhiallaahu anha], and make her arguments known to her, i.e. make the answering of Munkar and Nakeer easy, and make her grave spacious for her. (I ask you) through the right of your prophet and all the prophet's before me, for verily You are Most Merciful.' (al-Mu'jamul awsat vol.1 pg.152; Hilya vol.3 pg.121)

'Bi haqqi nabiyyika' (through the right of your prophet). This narration is classified as authentic according to the standards of Imaam ibn Hibbaan and Haakim. (Raf'ul Manaarah pg.147; Maqaalaatul Kawthari). Haafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami(RA) that its chain of narrators is good.(Refer to his footnotes on Al-Manaasik of Imaam Nawawi(RA) pg.500...)

4 When a person leaves the Musjid, the following du'aa is recorded, 'Allaahumma inniy as-aluka bi haqqis-saa-ileena alayka, wa bi haqqi mamshaaya haaza...'. (Translation: Oh Allah, I ask you through the right of those who ask you and through the right of the act of my walking...)

In this narration, Tawassul through people is established, '...through the right of those who ask' and Tawassul through one's deeds is supported by the second part. This Hadith is recorded in Sunan ibn Maajah, Musnad Ahmad (vol.3 pg.21), Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah and others. The following Muhadditheen have regarded it as authentic: Imaam ibn Khuzaymah (Kitaab Tawheed pg.17), Hafiz Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi (al-Naseehah), Hafiz Abul-Hasan al-Maqdisi - teacher of Allaamah Munzhiri (refer al-Targheeb vol.3 pg.273), Allamah al-Iraqi - Ustaadh of Hafiz ibn Hajar (Takhrijul Ihyaa), Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (Nataa-ijul Afkaar vol.1 pg.272), Hafiz Dimyati (Al-Matjarur-raabih). These are six great Muhadditheen that have accepted this Hadith to be authentic, hence, there remains no doubt at all concerning its acceptability.

The following two proofs illustrate to us the practise of the Sahaaba [radhiallaahu anhum] as well.

5 Sayyiduna Maalik al-Daar, the treasurer of food during the time of Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [radhiallaahu anhu], reports that once the people had been experiencing a drought in the era of Sayyiduna Umar [radhiallaahu anhu], a man went to the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] and said:

'O Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], ask for rain on behalf of your Ummah, for verily, they are being destroyed.' Thereafter this person was instructed in a dream to go to Sayyiduna Umar [radhiallaahu anhu] and tell him that, 'the rains will soon come and say to him, Be intelligent', When Umar [radhiallaahu anhu] was informed of this, he began to cry and he said, 'O My Lord, I will only leave out what I am unable to do.' (Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah vol.12 pg.31-32; Dalaailun-nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.7 pg.47). Hafiz ibn Katheer [ra] has stated that the chain of narrators is 'good and strong' (Musnadul Faarooq vol.1 pg.223). Hafiz ibn Hajar has also indicated to its authenticity in Fathul Bari.

6 Abul-Jawzaa - Aws ibn Abdullah [radhiallaahu anhu] reports that once, the people of Madinah were experiencing a severe drought. They complained to Sayyidatuna Aaisha [radhiallahu anha].

She advised them that they should make a hole in the tomb of the roof of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] so that the grave is exposed to the skies. He says, 'When they made a hole, heavy rains came down and crops also began to grow.' (Sunan Darimi vol.1 pg.56)

7 Imaam Haakim and others have narrated on the authority of Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [radhiallaahu anhu] that Rasulullah [Sallallahu alayhi wasallam] said, 'When Adam [alayhis salaam] ate from the forbidden tree, he said,

'O My Lord, I ask you through the right of Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] that you forgive me.' The words used were, 'Bi haqqi Muhammad' Allah Ta'ala accepted Aadam's [alayhis salaam] repentance. (al-Mustadrak vol.2 pg.615; Dalaailun-Nubuwwah of Imaam Bayhaqi vol.5 pg.489; al-Mu'jamus saghir of Imaam Tabrani vol.2 pg.82)

The status of this narration has been extensively disputed by the various Muhadditheen. Some have accepted it to be authentic and others rejected it. However, there is another narration that supports this narration recorded by Imaam Abul-Hasan ibn Bishraan [ra] on the authority of Sayyidatuna Maysarah [radhiallaahu anha]. The chain of narrators for this Hadith is totally different from the previous one. And in fact, Hafiz ibn Hajar [ra] has stated concerning a completely different narration which has the very same chain of narrators, that this chain of narrators is strong. (al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen pgs.138-139; al-Ahaadeethul Muntaqaa pg.14, both of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumarie). These narrations have all proven beyond a shadow of doubt that this form of Tawassul is permissible and was widely practised as well.

Hereunder follows a list of some of the many illustrious Ulama of the past who had practised upon Tawassul through the rank of the pious, deceased or alive:

1 Imaam Hasan ibn Ibrahim al-Hallal [ra] has stated that whenever he had any urgent need, he would go to the grave of Imaam Moosa ibn Ja'far [ra] and make Tawassul through him. Allah Ta'ala would fulfil his need. (refer Taarikh Baghdaad)

2 Imaam Shaafi'ee [ra] would make Tawassul at the grave of Imaam Abu Hanifa [ra]. (Taarikh Baghdaad). Allaamah al-Kawthari has classified this incident as authentic. (Maqaalaatul Kawthari pg.381)

3 Allaamah Taajuddeen al-Subki [ra] has mentioned that the people would go to the grave of Imaam ibn Foorak(ra), the teacher of Imaam Bayhaqi [ra] and make Du'aa and their Du'aas would get accepted.

4 Hafiz Al-Zarkashi [ra] has made Tawassul in the introduction to his commentary to Sahih al-Bukhari entitled, 'al-Tanqeeh'.

5 Hafiz Taqi-u-ddin al-Subki [ra], the father of Taajuddin al-Subki [ra], has approved of this firm of Tawassul and he has written a detailed treatise on this topic. (See his book: Shifaa-u-Siqaam pgs.293-318)

6 Allamah Nawawi [ra] has mentioned that from among the etiquettes of visiting the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] one should make Tawassul through Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] to Allah Ta'ala to accept his Du'aas. Thereafter, Allamah Nawawi states, '...and one of the best things that one should do is what has been related by Allaamah al-Mawardi [ra], al-Qaadhi Abu Teeb [ra] and all our Ulama and they have all regarded it as commendable, and that is the incident of Imaam al-Utabi [ra] that he said, 'I was once seated by the grave of Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam], when a Bedouin came and said, 'Peace be upon you, oh, Messenger of Allah. O Messenger of Allah, I have heard Almighty Allah say in the Qur'aan "And if they, when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you (Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and begged Allah's forgiveness and the messenger had begged forgiveness for them, indeed they would have found Allah All-Forgiving. Most merciful.(Al-Nisaa:64) hence, I have come to you in a state that I seek forgiveness of my sins by seeking your intercession by my Lord', thereafter he recited a few couplets and departed. Imaam al-Utabi [ra] states, 'I then fell asleep and I saw Rasulullah [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] instructing me by the words, 'O Utabi, go to that Bedouin and give him the glad tidings that Almighty Allah has forgiven him.' (Refer al-Majmoo vol.8 pg.456 - Cairo and Manaasikul-Imaam-Al-Nawawi pg.498-499 Maktabah Salafia). This incident has been related by many Ulama in their respective compilations. Some of them are: Haafiz Ibn-Katheer in his Tafseer, Allamah Abu-Muhammad ibn Qudaamah in Al-Mughni vol.3 pg.556, Imaam Abul-Faraj in Al-Sharhul-Kabeervol.3 pg.495, etc.)

7 Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal(RA) has also encouraged making Tawassul through Rasulullah [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] in ones duas. (Fataawa ibn Taimiyyah vol.1 pg.140, Also see Mafaaheem pg.137)

8 Haafiz Shamsud-Deen Al-Sakhawi (RA), the grand student of Haafiz ibn Hajr Al-Asqalaani(RA) made Tawassul on many occasions through Rasulullah [Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam] in his books, see for example Al-Tuhfatul-Lateefah vol.1 pg.3, 17; al-Ibtihaaj bi azkaaril musaafiril haaj

9 Allamah Muhammad ibn-ul-Jazri(RA) the famous Muhaddith and Master of Qira'aat has mentioned that from amongst the Aadaab etiquettes of dua is that one makes Tawassul with the Ambiyaa and the pious ones.(Al-Hisnul Haseen)

10 Imaam Al-Shawkaani Al-Salafi(RA) has also permitted Tawassul. (Tuhfatu-Zaakireen pg.50)

These are ten Different types of Ulama (i.e. some are Fuqahaa, some Muhadditheen and some are Qurraa). All have either practised on Tawassul or at least permitted it. And the list could go on....(refer to Maqaalatul Kawthari pg.378-397). After contemplating on all that was mentioned above, any person with sound intelligence would believe without a shadow of doubt in the permissibility of this form of Tawassul.

More so when one realizes that this remained the practise of the Ummah for centuries. Allamah Taqee-ud-Deen Al-Subki(RA) and other Muhadditheen have stated that Haafiz Ibn-Taimiyyah(RA) - who passed away in the year 728 Hijri - was the first to refute the permissibility of this form of Tawassul (Shifaa-us-Siqaam pg.293) In fact, Abu-Abdillah Al-Tilmisani Al-Maaliki(RA) (a renown scholar of the 7th century) has written a book concerning how this remained the practise of the entire Ummah since its existence. (Refer Maqaalatul Kawthari pg.397)

Lastly, we would like to draw your attention to the fact that the above permissibility is in regard to one who asks Allah Ta'ala for a particular need and in doing so, he uses some honourable personality as his Waseela (means) without thinking or believing that the person is being supplicated to or that he will fulfil his need. Yes, if one asks directly from the deceased and he believes that the Anbiyaa [alayhimus salaam] and the pious [rahimahumullah] independently possess the power to provide, then this would be Shirk (polytheism) because he is now ascribing partners to Allah in the quality of 'Providing'.

Many contemporaries have mixed both these forms up; a) asking directly from the deceased and, b) asking Allah Alone, through the medium of some deceased) and have passed one ruling of Shirk for both forms. This is clearly a gross oversight on their path.

and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Ml. Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon Abasoomar

FACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH SCIENCES

CHECKED & APPROVED: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Fatwa Dept.)

 


Tawassul (Supplicating Allah through an intermediary)

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: This question is about 'Tawassul'. Clearly, the sect of the Salafs state that it is shirk to do this act of worship and it breaks the Aqeedah of tawheed, even the people of the city of Saudi Arabia have dislike in this, and this Aqeedah has even been adopted by the Imams and Khateebs of the Harmain (two sacred Harams). Please give your words of wisdom on this controversial issue?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Tawassul (using intermediaries in supplication to Allah) through the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), Awliya and righteous believers is permitted, rather recommended according to the four schools of Sunni Islam.

This has been the mainstream belief held by scholars of this Ummah throughout the eras. The Salaf (predecessors) from the earliest generations had this understanding and this has been the way of the four Sunni Madhhabs in Fiqh.

The meaning of Tawassul is: To ask Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person. For example, one says: "O Allah! I ask forgiveness for my sins through the Wasila (intercession) of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)".

Tawassul can be carried out through one's own righteous deeds, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), righteous people who have passed away and those who are still alive. All these types of Tawassul are permitted and acceptable.

The permissibility of 'Tawassul' is proven from the Qur'an, Sunnah, continued practice of the Ummah and reason.

Some of the proofs on the validity of Tawassul:

1 Allah Most High says:

 

"O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek a means (wasila) to him" (Surah al-Ma'ida, V: 35)

The word "Wasila" (a means of approach) in its general indication includes Tawassul (intercession) by persons, and through actions.

2 Allah Almighty says:

 

"If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you (Prophet, Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Messenger of Allah had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed forgiving and Most Merciful". (Surah al-Nisa, V: 64)

These two verses are clear on the permissibility and recommendation of Tawassul. The distinction made by some, between the living and the dead in this matter only comes from one who believes in the perishing of souls upon death, which would lead to denying resurrection.

Also, when one uses Tawassul in supplication, one does not ask and seek from other than Allah. Only the high position, status and rank of the person through whom Wasila is carried out is used as intercession. In other words, the servant is saying: "O Allah! This certain Prophet or servant of yours is very close to you. I do not possess any good deeds, but I have love for the pious. O Allah! Pardon me and forgive my sins due to this love and connection I have with this pious servant of yours".

Now, every person with a sound mind will determine the fact that there is no reason to distinguish and differentiate between the living and the dead. This is the reason why scholars such as Imam Subki, Hafidh Ibn Kathir, Imam an-Nawawi and many others have declared the permissibility of Tawassul through the righteous, whether alive or passed away to the Mercy of Allah.

3 Imam al-Tirmidhi (Allah have Mercy on him) and others relate from Uthman ibn Hunaif (Allah be pleased with him):

"A blind man came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: "I've been afflicted in my eyesight, so pray to Allah for me". The Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: "Go perform ablution (Wudu), perform two rak'at Salat and then say: "O Allah! I ask you and turn to you through my Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. O Muhammad! I seek your intercession with my lord for the return of my eyesight, that it may be fulfilled. O Allah! Grant him intercession for me". The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) then said: "and if there is some other need, do the same". (Recorded by Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Tabrani and others, with a sound chain of narrators).

The express content of this Hadith proves the legal validity of Tawassul through a living person. It implicitly proves the validity of Tawassul through a deceased person, as Tawassul through a living or dead person is not through a physical body or through life or death, rather, through the positive meaning attached to the person in both life and death.

4 Moreover, Tabrani relates in his ' Mu'jam al-Kabir ' reporting from the same Uthman ibn Hunaif that a person repeatedly visited him concerning something he needed, but Uthman paid no attention to him. The man met his son and complained to him about the matter- this was after the death of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and after the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah be pleased with them)- so Uthman (who collected Hadith and was from the learned) said :

"Go to the place of Wudu, then come to the Masjid, perform two Rak'ats and then say : "O Allah!, I ask you and turn to you through our Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. O Muhammad! I turn through you to my lord, that He fulfil my need"....... until the end of the Hadith.

This is an explicit and clear text from a Companion proving the legal validity of Tawassul through the dead. The Hadith has been classed as authentic (Sahih) by al-Bayhaqi, Mundhiri, al-Haythami and many others.

5 In the Hadith recorded by Imam al-Bukhari and others, the Companion Umar (Allah be pleased with him) made Tawassul through the uncle of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhu), in asking Allah for rain at the time of drought.

These and many other Ahadith are clear on the permissibility and validity of Tawassul. This is the reason, why the great traditional Sunni scholars have held this belief throughout the ages. Even in the present era, most of the Muslims who belong to the Ahl Sunnah Wa al-Jama'ah in most parts of the world have this belief.

Many books in Arabic and other languages have been written in refutation of those who regard Tawassul as Shirk. Scholars from Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Emirates, India, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia itself have rejected the position held by the minority -so called- Salafi sect.

As far as some of the scholars of the Haramayn are concerned, there views in matters of Aqida are generally from the blind following of Imam Ibn Taymiyya... The Imam, despite having great knowledge, in many issues chose a path which was different from the path of the majority of the Ummah, and the Scholars by and large did not accept his views.

At the same time, one should be precautious in not having any wrong belief in Aqidah. There should be the conviction that Allah Almighty alone has influence over everything, outwardly and inwardly. Also, one should not have the belief that the supplication (Dua) is not accepted without Tawassul.

This is the real Tawhid.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

 


The Tawassul Challenge

By Ibn Saad

This is an open Challenge to those who are opposed to Tawassul. Please look at the quotes below and answer all of the following questions in the comment section:

 

1 Are the statements below correctly ascribed to their respective Imam, if not which is a false statement and why?

 

2 If indeed these Imams did make these claims, should Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Imam Ibn Khuzaima, Imam Ibn Hibban, Imam Nawawi and Imam Shawkani be considered kuffar based on this?

 

3 If not, are they Muslims, but guilty of Shirk of some degree?

 

4 If not, are they mubtadi'een?

 

5 Were they jahils to allow/perform tawassul without (supposedly) any daleels?

 

If you have said NO so far, can we agree that Tawassul is a Fiqh issue instead of an Aqeedah one?

Imam Ahmad and Tawassul:

:( المرداوي في الإنصاف ( 2:456 "... يجوز التوسل بالرجل الصالح على الصحيح من المذهب، وقيل: يُستحب. قال الإمام أحمد للمروذي : يتوسل بالنبي صلى اله عليه وسلم في دعائه وجزم به في المستوعب وغيره.."

Al-Mardawi said: "The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one's du'a to use as one's means a pious person (saalih), and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi: 'Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah.'" (Al-Insaf 2:456) This is also cited by Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmu' Al-Fatawa (1:140).

Imam Shawkani and Tawassul:

قال الشوكاني في تحفة الذاكرين: "وفي الحديث دليل على جواز التوسل برسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم إلى الله عز وجل مع اعتقاد أن الفاعل هو الله سبحانه وتعالى، وأنه المعطي والمانع ما شاء .(10/ كان وما لم يشأ لم يكن" (تحفة الأحوذي 34

Al-Shawkani said, in Tuhfatul Dhakireen:

"And in this hadith is proof for the permissibility of tawassul through the Prophet [s] to Allah, with the conviction that the [actual] doer is Allah, and that He is the Giver and the Withholder. What He wills is, and what He does not will, will never be."

Al-Albani on Imam Hanbal and Imam Al-Shawkani:

:( الألباني في "التوسل أنواعه وأحكامه" ( 38 "...مع أنه قد قال ببعضه بعض الأئمة، فأجاز الإمام أحمد التوسل بالرسول وحده فقط، وأجاز غيره كالإمام الشوكاني التوسل به وبغيره من الأنبياء والصالحي

Al-Albani in 'Al-Tawassul': "Even though some of them have been allowed by some of the Imams, so for instance Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal allowed tawassul through the Prophet alone, and others such as Imam Al-Shawkani allowed tawassul through his [pbuh] and through others from the Prophets and the righteous."

Imam Nawawi on Tawassul:

النووي في المجموع شرح المهذب (كتاب الحج): ثم يرجع إلى موقفه الأول قبالة وجه رسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم ويتوسل به في حق نفسه، ويستشفع به إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى

[The pilgrim] should then face the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (s) , make him an intermediary [to Allah], and intercede through him to Allah... (Majmu' Sharh Al-Madhhab – Kitab Al-Hajj)

Imam Ibn Khuzaymah and Tawassul:

:( 7/ ابن حجر في تهذيب التهذيب ( 339 قال (الحاكم النيسابوري) وسمعت أبا بكر محمد بن المؤمل بن الحسن بن عيسى يقول خرجنا مع امام أهل الحديث أبي بكر بن خزيمة وعديله أبي علي الثقفي مع جماعة من مشائخنا وهم إذ ذاك متوافرون إلى زيارة قبر علي بن موسى الرضى بطوس قال فرأيت من تعظيمه يعنى ابن خزيمة لتلك البقعة وتواضعه لها وتضرعه عندها ما تحيرنا.

Ibn Hajar (Tahdhib 7:339) narrates the account of the Imam of Ahlul-Hadith Ibn Khuzaymah, under the entry of the same Ali bin Musa Al-Ridha. He relates that Ibn Khuzaymah also performed tawassul at the grave of Al-Ridha.

Ibn Hibban and Tawassul:

:( 8/456/ ابن حبان في كتابه الثقات ( 14411 مات على بن موسى الرضا بطوس من شربة سقاه إياها المأمون فمات من ساعته وذلك في يوم السبت آخر يوم سنة ثلاث ومائتين وقبره بسناباذ خارج النوقان مشهور يزار بجنب قبر الرشيد، قد زرته مرارا كثيرة وما حلت بي شدة في وقت مقامى بطوس فزرت قبر على بن موسى الرضا صلوات الله على جده وعليه ودعوت الله إزالتها عنى إلا أستجيب لي وزالت عنى تلك الشدة وهذا شيء جربته مرارا فوجدته كذلك أماتنا الله على محبة المصطفى وأهل بيته صلى الله عليه وعليهم أجمعين.

In his Rijal book Al-Thuqat (8:456:14411), under the entry of Ali bin Musa al-Ridha, Ibn Hibban relates his own account of going to Al-Ridha's grave, performing tawassul through him and states that whenever "I was afflicted with a problem during my stay in Tus, I would visit the grave of Ali bin Musa (Allah's blessings be upon his grandfather and him) and ask Allah to relieve me of that problem and it (my dua) would be answered and the problem alleviated. And this is something I did, and found to work, many times ..."