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The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals

halalanimals

"Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine....." (Surah al-Ma'idah, V: 53).


The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: Can you give me a list of animals that are Halal and Haram according to the Hanafi School?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Islam is a religion of mercy and compassion. It only commands and prohibits that which is in the best interests of the human being. The human mind however, due to it being very limited and restricted, may not be able to understand the logic behind every ruling. It may not be able to comprehend properly why a particular ruling is given, but Allah Most High- the Merciful and All-Knowing- is the best to decide what is beneficial and harmful for us, for He is the one who created us.

Allah Most High blessed humanity with His beloved Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), as a light and light-giving. The Sacred Law (Shariah) of Islam that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) came with from Allah differentiated between a living and a dead animal. Dead animals were declared unlawful (haram). Certain animals that were harmful to the welfare of humans were also prohibited, such as pigs, dogs, cats and wild animals. Thus, the animals that have been prohibited for consumption by Shariah is due to the fact that they are harmful for human consumption, whether we realize and understand this or otherwise.

After understanding the above, it should be noted that each of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law (madhhabs) have their own principles (based on the guidelines of the Qur'an & Sunnah) with regards to which animals are lawful (halal) and which are unlawful (haram) for consumption.

Below are the basic principles of permissibility and impermissibility in the Hanafi School with regards to animal consumption, as mentioned in the classical books of Hanafi jurisprudence. (Culled from: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289-291, Bada'i al-Sana'i, 5/35-39 and Radd al-Muhtar, 304-308)

1 Animals that have been clearly and explicitly prohibited in the Qur'an or Sunnah are without doubt Haram, such as a swine, donkey, etc.

 

2 Animals that are born and live in water are all Haram with the exception of fish. All types of fishes are Halal, with the exception of that which dies naturally in the sea without any external cause. However, if a fish was to die due to some external cause such as cold, heat, being thrown to the shore by the water, colliding with a stone, etc, then it would be Halal.

Allah Most High says:

"Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine....." (Surah al-Ma'idah, V: 53)

In the above verse, Allah Almighty forbade the meat of all dead animals without differentiating between sea-animals and land-animals. Thus, all sea-animals would also be included in this general prohibition. However, fish has been exempted from this general ruling due to the explicit mention of its permissibility by the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace).

Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: "Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen." (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah)

Moreover, there is no mention in the Sunnah literature that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) or his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) ever consumed the meat of a sea-animal besides the fish, hence if it was permitted, it would have at least been consumed once in order to show its permissibility. (Dars Tirmidhi, 1/280)

As far as the fish which dies naturally in the sea without an external cause (samak al-tafi) is concerned, Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: "What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat." (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3809 & Sunan Ibn Majah)

Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) forbade the selling of naturally dead fish (floating fish) in the markets. (Bada'i al-Sana'i, 5/36 and al-Ikhtiyar)

In light of the above, all sea-animals are Haram except for fish. It will be permitted to eat a fish even without slaughtering it according to the rules of Shariah. However, a fish that dies naturally without an external cause and begins to float on the surface of the water (Samak al-Tafi) is also considered Haram.

3 The third principle is that, amongst the land-animals, those that have no blood in them are considered Haram, such as a hornet, fly, spider, beetle, scorpion, ant, etc.

Allah Most High says:

"...for he (the Prophet) commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure)..." (Surah al-A'raf, V: 157)

Thus, animals that don't contain blood such as spiders and others are considered to be from "what is impure" because a sound natured person would detest their consumption.

The only exception is that of a locust, for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) clearly permitted its consumption, in the Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawud and Musnad Ahmad quoted earlier.

Similarly, Ibn Abi Awfa (Allah be pleased with him) was asked concerning the consuming of a locust and he said: "I fought with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in six or seven battles, and we used to eat it (locust) with him. " (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3806)

 

4 The forth principle is that those land-animals who have blood in them but the blood does not flow, in other words animals that do not have flowing blood, are also considered Haram, such as a snake, lizard, chameleon, etc.

 

5  The fifth principle is that all types of pests (hasharat al-Ardh) are also considered Haram, such as a mouse, hedgehog, jerboa, etc.

 

The reasoning behind the prohibition of these animals is the same verse of Surah al-A'raf quoted above, in that they are considered impure (khabith) for consumption.

 

6  The sixth principle is, land-animals who have flowing blood in them and they survive on grass and leaves, and do not prey on other animals (i.e. non-predatory terrestrial animals) are all considered Halal, such as a camel, cow, goat, buffalo, sheep, deer, etc, although there is a slight difference of opinion within the Hanafi School with regards to the consumption of horse-meat, as will be discussed later. Also, a donkey is exempted from this general ruling, in that its meat in considered Haram for consumption.

Allah Most High says:

"And cattle (an'am), He has created for you, from them you derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat." (Surah al-Nahl, V: 5)

And:

"It is Allah Who made cattle for you, that you may use some for riding and some for food." (Surah al-Mu'min, V: 79)

In the above two verses, Allah Most High uses the term "al-An'am" (cattle) which refers to non-predatory animals, according to the unanimous agreement of all the linguistics.

As far as the consumption of horse-meat is concerned, Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) considers is somewhat disliked (makruh tanzihan) due to its honour and due to the fact that a horse is needed in Jihad. Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Allah have mercy on them both) consider it Halal, and it is said that Imam Abu Hanifa also retreated to this opinion. Thus, it would be permitted to consume horse-meat, although better to avoid.

With regards to the meat of a donkey and mule, Allah Most High says:

"And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which you have no knowledge." (Surah al-Nahl, V: 8)

So, in regards to all other non-predatory animals, Allah Almighty mentions that He has created them for consumption (as we have seen in the verses mention earlier). However, with regards to donkeys and mules, He mentions that they are for riding and adornment (zeenah). Had consumption of these animals been Halal, Allah Almighty would surely have mentioned it.

Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of donkeys on the day of the battle of Khaybar." (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5202)

Sayyiduna Abu Tha'laba (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of donkey's meat. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5205)

Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: "The donkeys have been (slaughtered and) eaten." Another man came and said: "The donkeys have been destroyed." The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) ordered a caller to announce to the people: "Allah and His Messenger forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys, for it is impure." Thus the pots were turned upside down while the (donkey's) meat was boiling in them." (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5208)

With regards to the mules, Sayyiduna Khalid ibn al-Walid (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of horses, mules and donkeys." (Musnad Ahmad, 4/89, Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3790, Sunan Nasa'i and Sunan Ibn Majah)

However, the fuqaha mention that the ruling on a mule would be that of its mother. If the mother is a donkey, then it would be definitely Haram. If the mother is some Halal animal such as a cow, it would be completely Halal, and if the mother is a horse, then the rules of eating horse-meat would apply. (See: Radd al-muhtar)

 

7  The seventh principle is that all terrestrial predatory animals and beasts, i.e. animals that hunt with their teeth, are considered Haram, such as a lion, cheetah, tiger, leopard, wolf, fox, dog, cat, etc.

 

8  The eighth principle is that all birds of prey, i.e. those that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc.

The proof for both these principles (seven and eight) is the famous Hadith of Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons." (Sahih Muslim, no: 1934)

Hence, all beasts and birds of prey, beasts that hunt with their teeth and birds who hunt with their talons/claws, are unanimously considered Haram.

 

9  The ninth principle is that birds who do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, rather they merely eat grains and crop, are all considered Halal, such as a chicken, duck, pigeon, dove, sparrow, crow, etc.

 

Sayyiduna Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (Allah be pleased with him) says: "I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) consuming (the meat of) chicken." (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5198)

 

10  The tenth principle is that if a Halal animal only consumes impure things to the extent that it creates bad odour in its meat and milk, then it will be Makruh to consume its meat and drink its milk. However, if it consumes other things along with the impure, or if it does not create bad smell in its meat and milk, then the meat and milk will be totally Halal. (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/340)

It is stated in al-Fatwa al-Hindiya:

"A chicken will only be considered a jallalah (hence makruh) if the majority of what it eats is impure, and that it penetrates into the meat in such a way that it creates a bad smell." (See: al-fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289)

 

11  The last principle is that if one parent of an animal is Halal and the other Haram, consideration will be taken of the mother.

 

aThus, if the mother is a Halal animal, the offspring would also be Halal, such as a mule whose mother is a cow.

 

b If however, the mother is a Haram animal, the offspring would also be Haram, such as a mule whose mother is a donkey.

 

The above were eleven general and broad principles with regards to the consumption of animal meat, according to the Hanafi School of thought. It should be noted here that the meaning of Halal is merely that one may eat of the animal, but there are separate rules with regards to slaughtering and hunting these animals, for which one may refer to previously posted articles or the books of Fiqh. Failure to comply with these rules may well render a Halal animal Haram.

In light of the above general principles, the following is a list of Halal and Haram animals in the Hanafi School: (Both these lists of animals are not exclusive)

Animals whose meat is Halal:

1 Camel

 

2 Goat

 

3  Sheep

 

4  Buffalo

 

5  Stag

 

6  Rabbit

 

7 Cow (including mountain cow)

 

8 Wild-ass (The prohibition in the Hadith is of domesticated donkeys)

 

9  Fish (of all types, including prawns according to those who consider prawns to be a form of fish. Others however, don't permit its consumption, for they don't consider prawns to be from the fish family. For details, see an earlier post).

 

10  Deer/Antelope/Gazelle

 

11 Duck

 

12 Heron (grey or white wading bird with long neck and long legs and (usually) long bill).

 

13  Nightingale

 

14  Quail

 

15 Parrot

 

16 Francolin

 

17 Locust

 

18 Partridge (heavy-bodied small-winged South American game bird)

 

19  Lark (North American yellow-breasted songbirds)

 

20 Sparrow

 

21 Goose

 

22 Ostrich

 

23 Dove

 

24 Pigeon

 

25 Stork

 

26 Rooster

 

27 Chicken

 

28 Peacock

 

29 Starling

 

30 Hoopoe (any of several crested Old World birds with a slender down-curving bill, known in Arabic as Hudhud- that was sent by Sayyiduna Suleyman (peace be upon him).

Animals whose meat is Haram:

1 Wolf

 

2 Hyena

 

3 Cat

 

4 Monkey

 

5 Scorpion

 

6 Leopard

 

7 Tiger

 

8Cheetah

 

9 Lion

 

10 Jerboa

 

11 Bear

 

12 Swine/pig

 

13 Squirrel

 

14 Hedgehog

 

15 Snake

 

16 Tortoise/Turtle

 

17 Dog

 

18 Crab

 

19 Jackal

 

20 Donkey (domesticated)

 

21  Lizard (The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the eating of a Lizard. Recorded by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan from Abd al-Rahman ibn Shibl (Allah be pleased with him). Hadith no: 3790)

 

22 Fox

 

23  Crocodile

 

24 Weasel

 

25  Elephant (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/306)

 

26 Falcon

 

27 Hawk

 

28 Kite

 

29  Bat

 

30 Vulture

 

31 Mouse

 

32 Rat

 

33 All insects, such as a Mosquito, Fly, Wasp, Spider, Beetle, etc.

 

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


Is Shark Meat Halal?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: Is it Permissible to eat sharks? Aren’t man-eating animals Haram?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

The answer given earlier is correct indeed and something that is agreed upon by all four Sunni Schools of Islamic law. All the four major Sunni Madhabs are in agreement that consuming all types of fish is without doubt Halal, due to the explicit mention of this in the Qur'an and Sunnah.

The permissibility of eating all types of fish without the need of carrying out the Islamic method of slaughter is a special dispensation given to us by Allah Most High, the All-Wise and All-Knowing. Fish has been exempted from the general ruling of the impermissibility of eating dead animals, and it can be consumed even if it was a man-eater.

Allah Most High says:

"Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game (fishing) and its use for food, for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel..." (Surah al-Ma'ida, V: 96)

This verse, according to the understanding of the Hanafi Mujtahids, refers to fish only, and not other animals.

Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: "Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen." (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad, 2/97 and Sunan Ibn Majah, no: 3314)

Thus, there is complete consensus with regards to the permissibility of eating fishes of all kind, including sharks and whales, due to the above-mentioned and many other evidences found in the Sunnah. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and his blessed Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) have been reported in many narrations to have consumed fish. In fact, there is a renowned Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari and elsewhere that alludes to the permissibility of eating large fishes such as the shark and whale.

Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) sent troops to the sea-coast and appointed Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) as their commander, and they were 300 (men). We set out, and we had covered some distance on the way, when our journey-food and provision ran short. So Abu Ubayda ordered that all the food present with the troops be collected, and it was collected. Our journey-food was dates, and Abu Ubayda kept on giving us our daily share from it little by little until it decreased to such an extent that we did not receive except a date each. I (Jabir) asked: "How did you survive on one date?" He said: "We came to know its value when even that finished." Jabir added: "Then we reached the sea (coast) where we found a fish like a small mountain. The people (i.e. troops) ate from it for 18 nights (i.e. days). Then Abu Ubayda ordered that two of its ribs be fixed on the ground (in the form of an arch) and that a she-camel be ridden and passed under them. So it passed under them without touching them." (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 4102, Kitab al-Maghazi)

In another version of this narration, Sayyiduna Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) says:

"We set out in the army of al-Khabt and Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) was the commander of the troops. We were struck with severe hunger and the sea threw out a dead fish the like of which we had never seen, and it was called al-Anbar. We ate of it for half a month. Abu Ubayda took (and fixed) one of its bones and a rider passed underneath it (without touching it). Abu Ubayda said (to us): "Eat (of that fish)." When we arrived at Madina, we informed the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) about what had happened, and he said: "Eat, for it is food Allah has brought out for you, and feed us if you have some of it." So some of them gave him (of that fish) and he ate it." (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 4104)

The above narration clearly shows that the Anbar fish which the sea had thrown out for the consumption of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) was a huge and gigantic fish. Sayyiduna Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) resembled it to a small mountain and Sayyiduna Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) made an arch with its ribs and a camel-rider passed under it without his head touching the ribs. In another narration, it is mentioned that Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) had chosen the tallest man out of them to ride the camel, in order to show the enormity of the fish. Thus, it can be said (and Allah knows best) that this fish may be some kind of a whale or shark.

In conclusion, all the Fuqaha of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law are in agreement that all types of fish are Halal for consumption. This also includes sharks, for they are also considered to be from the fish family.

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


What Parts of a Halal Animal are Haram to Eat?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: I was just wondering what parts of a Halal animal are impermissible to eat. I recently heard that there are certain parts of a Halal animal that remain Haram. Is this true?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

According to the Hanafi School of Islamic law, seven things from a Halal and lawfully-slaughtered animal cannot be eaten. The first of these seven items has been emphatically forbidden by a decisive text of the Qur'an, hence it is unlawful (haram) to consume it; whereas consuming the other six items is considered prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrim), because there is no decisive text regarding their prohibition although their prohibitive dislike is proven through non decisive texts. (See: Bada'i al-Sana'i 5/61)

The seven things are as follows:

1 Flowing Blood

The prohibition of consuming blood that flows has been proven through a decisive text of the Qur'an. Allah Most High says in the Qur'an:

'Say, I do not find, in what has been revealed to me anything [out of the cattle under discussion] prohibited for anyone who eats it, unless it be carrion, or blood that pours forth, or flesh of swine 'because it is impure' or there be an animal slaughtered sinfully by invoking on it the name of someone other than Allah' (Surah al-An'am, V: 146)

 

2 Penis

 

3 Testicles

 

4 Vulva (external parts of the female genitalia)

 

5 Glands

 

6 Urinary bladder

 

7 Gall-bladder

 

Allah Most High says:

'For he allows them as lawful what is pure and makes unlawful for them filthy things' (Surat al-A'raf, V: 157)

This verse of Surat al-A'raf signifies that 'filthy things (khaba'ith)' have been prohibited by Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace). The term used in the Qur'an is 'khaba'ith' which refers to things whose consumption would be detested by sound natured people. As such, the Hanafi jurists have ruled that the consumption of the above mentioned six things from a Halal animal is Makruh Tahrim, since they are of the filthy things (khaba'ith) entailed by the verse of the Qur'an.

Moreover, Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani reports from al-Awza'i, from Wasil ibn Abi Jamil that Mujahid (Allah be pleased with them all) said: 'The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) disliked consuming seven things from the sheep: the gall-bladder, the urinary bladder, the glands, the vulva, the penis, the testicles and the blood. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to like the forepart of sheep and goats.' (Kitab al-Athar, with a sound chain of narration, no: 811)

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


Halal & Haram animals from the sea?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Ismail Moosa (HA)

Question:

1 I want to know in detail what is halal from Sea and what is haram because iwas having disscussion with my friend from europe specially about crab and prans we have heard from some place its halal some is telling its makroo please explain properly about makroo also .


2 what animals and bird is halal to eat .

 

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Assalaamu 'alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

1 According to the Hanafi Madhab, it is only permissible to eat fish from the ocean. This is due to the narration wherein it is related from Nabi صلي الله عليه وسلم that He said,

عن عبد الله بن عمر أن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال :« أحلت لنا ميتتان ودمان ، فأما الميتتان : فالجراد والحوت ، وأما الدمان : فالطحال والكبد ». أخرجه البيهقي في السنن الكبرى - (1 / 254) موقوفاو مرفوعا , أشار الحافظ الى ضعف المرفوع في بلوغ المرام - (1 /7) ولكنا الموقوف له حكم الرفع كما قاله البيهقي رحمه الله.

"Two animals that die naturally have been permitted for us, the locust and the fish" (Narrated by al-Bayhaqi (1/254)

Those scholars who classify crabs and prawns as fish regard it as permissible to eat the same. However, there are many Ulama who do not classify them as fish, hence it is better to abstain. Nabi صلي الله عليه وسلم has said,

الحلال بين والحرام بين وبينهما مشبهات لا يعلمها كثير من الناس فمن اتقى المشبهات استبرأ لدينه وعرضه )صحيح البخاري - (1 / 28) ومسلم- (5/50)

"Halal is clear and Haram is clear. Between the two is that which is doubtful which many people do not know about. Whoever protects himself from the doubtful protects his religion and integrity." (Narrated by Bukhari (1/28) and Muslim(5/50)

ولا يؤكل من حيوان الماء إلا السمك (مختصر القدوري - (1 / 192)

قال في الخلاصة وإنما يحل الصيد بخمسة عشر شرطاوخمسة في الصيد منها أن لا يكون متقويا بأنيابه أو بمخلبه وأن لا يكون من الحشرات وأن لا يكون من بنات الماء سوى السمك وأن يمنع نفسه بجناحة أو مخلبه وأن يموت بهذا قبل أن يصل إلى ذبحه (البحر الرائق - (8 / 251)

2 Those birds that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc. This is based on the following narration of 'Abd Allah bin 'Abbas (May Allah Ta'ala be pleased with him) where he said,

عن ابن عباس قال نهى رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- عن كل ذى ناب من السباع وعن كل ذى مخلب من الطير. (صحيح مسلم - (6 / 60)

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons." (Sahih Muslim 6/60)

Thus, all animals that hunt with their teeth and birds of prey who hunt with their talons/claws are impermissible. This is a general principle, for any specific animal or bird, you are most welcome to write to us again.

All those birds are halal which merely eat grains and crop and do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, like ducks, chickens, crows, doves, pigeons, sparrows, etc.

قال رحمه الله ( ولا يؤكل ذو ناب ولا مخلب من سبع وطير ) يعني لا يحل أكل ذي ناب من سباع البهائم وذي مخلب من سباع الطير لما روى ابن عباس رضى الله تعالى عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن أكل ذي ناب ومخلب من سبع وطير رواه مسلم والجماعة

والسباع جمع سبع وهو كل مختطف منتهب جارح قاتل عادة والمراد بذي المخلب ما له مخلب هو سلاح وهو مفعل من الخلب وهو مزق الجلد ويعلم بذلك أن المراد بذي مخلب هو سباع الطير لأن كل ماله مخلب وهو الظفر كما أريد به في ذي ناب من سباع البهائم لا كل ما له ناب ولأن طبيعة هذه الأشياء مذمومة شرعا فيخشى أن يتولد من لحمها شيء من طباعها فيحرم إكراما لبني آدم وهو نظير ما روي عنه عليه الصلاة والسلام أنه قال لا ترضع لكم الحمقاء فإن اللبن يغذي (البحر الرائق - (8 / 195)

And Allah knows best

Wassalaamu 'alaykum

Ml. Ismail Moosa,

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

Clarification:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu 'alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

We have been notified of a misconception which arouse from Fatwa number 18321.

The fatwa should have been worded differently. Although some contemporary scholars opine that a crab is fish and no consideration should be given to science, none of the classical scholars ever classified a crab as fish. There is a consensus amongst traditional scholars and hence, crabs will NOT be permissible according to the Hanafi madhab.

And Allah knows best

Wassalaamu 'alaykum

Ml. Ismail Moosa,

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah