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Legal status of Non-Muslims entering Makkah and Madinah

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Non-Muslim are permitted to enter both the Haram of Makkah and Madīnah for purposes other than rituals of Hajj and ‘Umrah according to the Hanafi Madhab.


Are non-Muslims permitted to enter the Haramain?

Q) Did nabi (Sallahu alayhi wasallam) mention anything about non muslims entering the blessed place of Haramain, why is non muslims not allowed really there? What is the reason for this?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 



As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

It is not permissible for non-Muslims to enter the Haram of Makkah for performing any of the rituals of Hajj and ‘Umrah. However, they are permitted to enter both the Haram of Makkah and Madīnah for other purposes according to the Hanafi Mazhab.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Nabeel Valli

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (5/ 128) [دار الكتب العلمية

وَلَا بَأْسَ بِدُخُولِ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ الْمَسَاجِدَ عِنْدَنَا وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - وَالشَّافِعِيُّ لَا يَحِلُّ لَهُمْ دُخُولُ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ احْتَجَّ مَالِكٌ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - بِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ} [التوبة: 28] وَتَنْزِيهُ الْمَسْجِدِ عَنْ النَّجَسِ وَاجِبٌ يُحَقِّقُهُ أَنَّهُ يَجِبُ تَنْزِيهُ الْمَسْجِدِ عَنْ بَعْضِ الطَّاهِرَاتِ كَالنُّخَامَةِ وَنَحْوِهَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - «إنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ لَيَنْزَوِي مِنْ النُّخَامَةِ كَمَا تَنْزَوِي الْجِلْدَةُ مِنْ النَّارِ» فَعَنْ النَّجَاسَةِ أَوْلَى وَاحْتَجَّ الشَّافِعِيُّ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - بِقَوْلِهِ جَلَّ وَعَلَا {فَلا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَذَا} [التوبة: 28] خَصَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بِالنَّهْيِ عَنْ قُرْبَانِهِ فَيَدُلُّ عَلَى اخْتِصَاصِ حُرْمَةِ الدُّخُولِ بِهِ لِيَكُونَ التَّخْصِيصُ مُفِيدًا.

(وَلَنَا) أَنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنْ وُفُودِ الْعَرَبِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ كَانُوا يَدْخُلُونَ الْمَسْجِدَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَإِنَّهُ رُوِيَ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ عَامَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ وَكَذَا وَفْدُ ثَقِيفٍ دَخَلُوا الْمَسْجِدَ «وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - يَوْمَ فَتْحِ مَكَّةَ مَنْ دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَهُوَ آمِنٌ» جَعَلَ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ - الْمَسْجِدَ مَأْمَنًا وَدَعَاهُمْ إلَى دُخُولِهِ وَمَا كَانَ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ - لِيَدْعُوَ إلَى الْحَرَامِ (وَأَمَّا) الْآيَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ فَالْمُرَادُ أَنَّهُمْ نَجَسُ الِاعْتِقَادِ وَالْأَفْعَالِ لَا نَجَسُ الْأَعْيَانِ إذْ لَا نَجَاسَةَ عَلَى أَعْيَانِهِمْ حَقِيقَةً وَقَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {فَلا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَذَا} [التوبة: 28] نَهْيٌ عَنْ دُخُولِ مَكَّةَ لِلْحَجِّ لَا عَنْ دُخُولِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ نَفْسِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ} [التوبة: 28].

وَمَعْلُومٌ أَنَّ خَوْفَ الْعَيْلَةِ إنَّمَا يَتَحَقَّقُ بِمَنْعِهِمْ عَنْ دُخُولِ مَكَّةَ لَا عَنْ دُخُولِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ نَفْسِهِ لِأَنَّهُمْ إذَا دَخَلُوا مَكَّةَ وَلَمْ يَدْخُلُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ لَا يَتَحَقَّقُ خَوْفُ الْعَيْلَةِ وَلِمَا رُوِيَ «أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - بَعَثَ سَيِّدَنَا عَلِيًّا - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ - يُنَادِي أَلَا لَا يَحُجُّنَّ بَعْدَ هَذَا الْعَامِ مُشْرِكٌ» فَثَبَتَ أَنَّ هَذَا نَهْيٌ عَنْ دُخُولِ مَكَّةَ لِلْحَجِّ إلَّا أَنَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى ذَكَر الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ لِمَا أَنَّ الْمَقْصِدَ مِنْ إتْيَانِ مَكَّةَ الْبَيْتُ وَالْبَيْتُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ وَاَللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ.

تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق وحاشية الشلبي (6/ 30) [مكتبة إمدادية]

قَالَ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ -: (وَدُخُولُ ذِمِّيٍّ مَسْجِدًا) أَيْ جَازَ إدْخَالُ الذِّمِّيِّ جَمِيعَ الْمَسَاجِدِ، وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - يُكْرَهُ ذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ، وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ يُكْرَهُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَذَا} [التوبة: 28]؛ وَلِأَنَّ الْكَافِرَ لَا يَخْلُو عَنْ الْجَنَابَةِ فَوَجَبَ تَنْزِيهُ الْمَسْجِدِ عَنْهُ، وَعَدَّى مَالِكٌ إلَى سَائِرِ الْمَسَاجِدِ لِعُمُومِ الْعِلَّةِ، وَهِيَ النَّجَاسَةُ؛ لِأَنَّ كُلَّهَا تُنَزَّهُ عَنْهَا، وَلَنَا أَنَّ «النَّبِيَّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - أَنْزَلَ وَفْدَ ثَقِيفٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ وَضَرَبَ لَهُمْ خَيْمَةً فِيهِ فَقَالَتْ الصَّحَابَةُ الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَقَالَ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ - لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنْ نَجَاسَتِهِمْ شَيْءٌ، وَإِنَّمَا نَجَاسَتُهُمْ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ» وَرُوِيَ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ دَخَلَ فِي حَالِ كُفْرِهِ مَسْجِدَ النَّبِيِّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - وَالنَّجَاسَةُ الْمَذْكُورَةُ فِي الْآيَةِ هِيَ الْخُبْثُ فِي اعْتِقَادِهِمْ؛ لِأَنَّ كُلَّ قَبِيحٍ رِجْسٌ، وَهُوَ النَّجَسُ أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّ الْأَزْلَامَ وَالْمَيْسِرَ سُمِّيَتْ فِي الْقُرْآنِ رِجْسًا لِقُبْحِهَا وَالْمُرَادُ بِالْمَنْعِ الْمَذْكُورِ فِي الْآيَةِ عَنْ قُرْبَانِهِمْ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ مَنْعُهُمْ عَنْ الطَّوَافِ؛ لِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَطُوفُونَ بِالْبَيْتِ عُرَاةً عَلَى مَا ذَكَرَهُ أَهْلُ التَّفْسِيرِ، وَكَانَ الْحُكْمُ لَهُمْ فَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا أَرَادُوا، وَلَمَّا أَعْلَى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى كَلِمَتَهُ وَنَصَرَ دِينَهُ، وَفَتَحَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ بَعْدَ الْفَتْحِ نُهُوا عَنْ ذَلِكَ، وَمُنِعُوا مِنْ دُخُولِهِ لِقَصْدِ الطَّوَافِ بِالْكُلِّيَّةِ.


 

Why is it impermissible for Non-muslims to enter Makkah?

Q) Why it is not permissible for the non-muslims to enter Makkah Haram area? What are the hadiths and ayahs regarding this issue?


Assalamu Alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh



Thank you for your question. May Allah reward you for your question. Your concern regarding religious matters is admirable.

Kindly note that it is permissible for non-Muslims (Christians, Jews, idolaters, atheists, agnostics etc,) to enter the masjid (mosque), including the grand mosque in Makkah, as long as:

1 There is a purposeful benefit related to their entry (construction, maintenance, interfaith and propagation to Islam etc.),

 

2 They are outwardly clean,

 

3 And they respect the sacredness of the masjid.

The author of I’ela al Sunan writes, “Numerous narrations evidently validate the permissibility of non-muslims entering, and also allowing them to enter the masjid. They should not be prohibited from entering. As for the Qur’anic verse 9:28; ‘O you who believe, the idolaters are impure indeed, so let them not approach Al-Masjid-al-Haram’ is attributed to not allowing entry in the event of appropriation, taking authority over the mosque or other such similar situations. For indeed Almighty Allah states, ‘It was not for such men to enter them (the masajid) except in awe’(Qur’an 2:114). There is also no evidence to differentiate or (exclude) a specific masjid from another. ” (I’ela al Sunan)



Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah has recorded the following narration: “The delegation of Thaqif arrived to see the Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) while he was in the masjid in a canopy of his. It was said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah, they are idolaters!’. The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) responded saying, ‘Nothing causes the earth to become impure’.” (Muṣannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah)



Also refer to the following narrations:

Uthman Ibn Abi al As (may Allah be please with him) reports, “When the delegation of Thaqif arrived to see the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings upon him), he lodged them in the masjid so that it would be a kind gesture for their hearts.” (Sunan Abi Dawud)



Abu Hurairah (may Allah be please with him) reports regarding the story of Thumamah Ibn Uthal (a disbeliever at that time) “he was positioned at one of the pillars of the masjid”. (Bukhari and Muslim)



And Allah knows best.

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Badat
Hadith of the Day Imam
Imam of the Islamic Foundation of Toronto and Director of Mathabah Institute


 

Are non-Muslims Allowed to Enter Mecca and the Sacred Mosque (Haram)?

Q) Why can’t non-Muslim, Jews and Christians, enter Mecca or the Haram?

Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,



I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith.

The short answer to your question is that historically there was disagreement among jurists with respect to the matter. Abu Hanifa’s opinion was that non-Muslims can enter Mecca and even the Sacred Mosque [haram], as long as they do not do so for the sake of the pilgrimage [hajj or umra], which they are not allowed to perform. This is the opinion of the Hanafi school of law, which historically up to today has been the largest juridical school of Islam. Other schools of thought, however, differed on the legal ruling.

The Verse in Question

This ruling is based on the Qur’anic verse, “O believers, polytheists are not except filth, so let them not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year of theirs…” [9:28].



This verse was revealed in the 9th year after hijra, which is therefore what is meant by the phrase “this year of theirs.” The year is ascribed to them in the verse to emphasize the fact that the legal ruling therein is specific to them alone. [Ibn Ashur, Tahrir wal-Tanwir]



Most Qur’anic exegetes [mufassirun] interpreted the first statement as metaphorical, that is, polytheists are not literally filth, but their creed of associating partners with Allah Most High is so base and vile in the sight of Allah that it is akin to filth itself, so much so that it is as if those who adhere to such beliefs are themselves filth. [Ibn Ashur, Tahrir wal-Tanwir; Alusi, Ruh al-Ma’ani; Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil; Abu Suud, Irshad al-Aql al-Salim; Abu Hayyan, Bahr al-Muhit; Suyuti, Tafsir Jalalayn]

Juridical Difference on the Resultant Legal Ruling

As for the legal ruling derived from the verse, as mentioned above there was disagreement among jurists historically.

Imam Shafi’i interpreted the verse to mean that after that year, polytheists were not allowed to enter the Sacred Mosque of Mecca, yet they could enter other mosques, as only the Sacred Mosque was specified in the verse. This was the opinion of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal as well.



Imam Malik understood the verse to be more general and therefore maintained that polytheists could not enter the Sacred Mosque of Mecca nor any mosque whatsoever.



Also, according to Imams Shafi’i, Malik and Ahmad, the term “Sacred Mosque” used in the verse linguistically refers to the entire Sacred Precinct, that is, all of Mecca as well as its outlying areas; hence, the legal ruling of barring non-Muslims from entry would apply to that whole area, not just the Sacred Mosque of Mecca.



Imam Abu Hanifa understood the verse to refer only to the actual pilgrimage, not to mere entrance, and therefore maintained that polytheists could enter any mosque, even the Sacred Mosque of Mecca. According to him, they simply could not perform the pilgrimage, neither hajj nor umra, as was customary among the polytheists of Mecca before the revelation of the above verse. [Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur’an; Alusi, Ruh al-Ma’ani; Qurtubi, Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an; Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab; Nawawi, Majmu’; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Kasani, Bada’i al-Sana’i; Buhuti, Kashshaf al-Qina’]

All of Humanity is Honored

However, regardless of this particular ruling and the Islamic view of polytheism as a creed, people that adhere to such beliefs are still our brothers in humanity, and all humans are honored by Allah as they are children of Adam and Allah’s vicegerents on earth. Muslims are commanded to treat all humans – whether Jews, Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, polytheists, atheists, or otherwise – with respect, dignity, and mutual regard.

Allah Most High states, “And We have indeed honored the children of Adam,” [17:70] i.e., all of humanity, irrespective of differences in creed.



He Most High also states, “O humanity! We have created you all from a male and female, and We have made you into nations and tribes so that you may come to know one another…” [49:13] Our differences, then, are merely a platform upon which we, as brothers in humanity, can have civil dialogue and open the doors of communication so as to come to know one another.



Furthermore, it is rigorously authenticated that our Beloved Messenger [peace and blessings be upon him] said, “The believer is one from whom all of humanity feels safe.” [Sahih Ibn Hibban; Mustadrak Hakim; Musnad Ahmad] Therefore according to the Prophet himself, the very definition and hence nature of the believer entails providing safety and security to all of humanity.



He also said, “I was sent to perfect good character,” [Mustadrak Hakim; Sunan Bayhaqi], and according to Islamic creed, he [peace and blessings be upon him] was sent not just to the Arabs, but rather to all of humanity. The prophetic perfection of character, then, is directed towards humanity at large. This is further echoed by the Qur’anic verse, “And We have sent you not except as a mercy to all of creation.” [21:107]



Out of emulation of the Prophet, Muslims are therefore commanded to reflect prophetic mercy to all humans, creedal differences aside.

And Allah alone gives success.

wassalam


Faraz A. Khan