Search us

Bookmark us

FacebookMySpaceTwitterDiggDeliciousStumbleuponGoogle BookmarksRedditNewsvineTechnoratiLinkedinMixxRSS Feed
Print Friendly and PDF

Investigating the narrations of placing the hands upon the chest in Salah

 hands chest

It is rather unfortunate that we have to spend time to discuss a subject which the Muslim ummah has accepted to be a difference of opinion for over 1400 years just to address some of our enthusiastic brothers and sisters who claim that everything besides placing the hands on the chest in salah is weak!.


It is rather unfortunate that we have to spend time to discuss a subject which the Muslim ummah has accepted to be a difference of opinion for over 1400 years just to address some of our enthusiastic brothers and sisters who claim that everything besides placing the hands on the chest in salah is weak! We have our sincere brothers and sisters going from Mosque to Mosque and reprimanding (and chastising) any Muslim who places their hands anywhere in Salah so this is an attempt to show that the narrations instructing to place the hands upon the chest in Salah are infact weak and disregarded.

Considering the state of the Ummah we would prefer to spend our time on positive Dawah rather than getting bogged down in polemics but we are left with no choice but to address the matter in a professional and Academic manner which has been turned into a issue to divide the Ummah and cause chaos which is in fact nothing but a storm in a teacup.

Before proceeding understand that the placing the hands above the Navel doesn’t mean chest and nearly all narrations of the issue of placing the hands upon the chest will be discussed here with the first one in great detail since it is proclaimed to be the most authentic and the discussions on the rest summarised.

Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Ibn Khuzaimah with addition of "On His Chest":


أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو طَاهِرٍ ، نَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ ، نَا أَبُو مُوسَى ، نَا مُؤَمَّلٌ ، نَا سُفْيَانُ ، عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ كُلَيْبٍ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ ، عَنْ وَائِلِ بْنِ حُجْرٍ قَالَ : " صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - ، وَوَضَعَ يَدَهُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى يَدِهِ الْيُسْرَى عَلَى صَدْرِهِ

Sayyiduna Wail Ibn Huj'r (RA) says, 'I prayed with the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and he placed his right hand over his left on his chest. [Ibn Khuzaimah]

Chain of Narration of tradition of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA):

This narration is recorded in Ibn Khuzaimah and narrated through the following chain:

 

1 Imam Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Ishaq Ibn Khuzaymah (837 CE/223 AH – 923 CE/311 AH) has collected a tradition in his Sahih Ibn Khuazaymah that;

 

2 It was narrated to us from Abu Taahir (RA) who narrates from;

 

3 Abu Bak'r (RA) who narrates from;

 

4 Abu Musa (RA) who narrates from;

 

5 Muammal bin Ismail (RA) who narrates from;

 

6 Sufyan (RA) who narrates from;

 

7 Asim Ibn Kulayb (RA) who narrates from;

 

8 His father (Kulayb Ibn Shihab (RA)) who narrates from;

 

9 The companion Sayyidina Wail Ibn Huj'r (RA);

 

Firstly. we have highlighted the chain of Kulayb Ibn Shihab (RA) because the same tradition is also authentically narrated by two others narrators and both don't mention anything about hands been upon the chest, at all!

Secondly, even if we were to disregard the two other authentically narrated traditions we will later discuss the narrator Muammal bin Ismail (RA) which is also highlighted.

There are many other chains for this hadeeth, however, none contain this extra wording. Thus, it is clear that this is Muammal bin Ismail's own erroneous addition to the hadeeth.

Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Saheeh Muslim with no mention of "On His Chest":

حدثنا زهير بن حرب حدثنا عفان حدثنا همام حدثنا محمد بن جحادة حدثني عبد الجبار بن وائل عن علقمة بن وائل ومولى لهم أنهما حدثاه عن أبيه وائل بن حجر أنه رأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رفع يديه حين دخل في الصلاة كبر وصف همام حيال أذنيه ثم التحف بثوبه ثم وضع يده اليمنى على اليسرى فلما أراد أن يركع أخرج يديه من الثوب ثم رفعهما ثم كبر فركع فلما قال سمع الله لمن حمده رفع يديه فلما سجد سجد بين كفيه

Sayyidina Wa'il  IbnHujr (RA) reported: He saw the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down, and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:" Allah listened to him who praised Him." And when prostrates. he prostrated between the two palms. [Muslim]

Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Musnad of Imam Ahmed (RA) with no mention of "On His Chest":

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا محمد بن جعفر ثنا شعبة عن عمرو بن مرة قال : سمعت أبا البختري الطائي يحدث عن عبد الرحمن بن اليحصبي عن وائل بن حجر الحضرمي : : ( أنه صلى مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فكان يكبر إذا خفض و إذا رفع و يرفع يديه عند التكبير و يسلم عن يمينه و عن يساره . قال شعبة : قال لي أبان - يعني ابن تغلب - في الحديث حتى يبدو وضح وجهه ، فقلت لعمرو : أفي الحديث حتى يبدو وضح وجهه ؟ فقال عمرو أو نحو ذلك .).

Students of Sufyan Tahwri (RA) all except Muammal bin Ismail (RA) not mentioning "On His Chest":

Thirdly, the other narrators who report the hadeeth together with Sufyan al Thawri (RA) from Aasim bin Kulaib (RA) have also not included these words in their narrations. Observe the following list of narrators who have al reported the same hadeeth from Aasim bin Kulaib but none of then have included the additional words reported by Muammal bin Ismaeel

1 Sh'ubah, Abdul Wahid, and Zubair bin Muawiyah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18398, 18371 & 18397)

 

2 Zaidah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad, Darimi, Abu Dawood. Nasai and Baihaqi (Ahmad 18391, Darimi 1357, Abu Dawood 726, Nasai 889 and Baihaqi 2325)

 

3 Bishr bin al Mufaddhal as in Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood and Nasai (Ibn Majah 810, Abu Dawood 726 & 957, and Nasai 1265)

 

4 Abdullah bin Idrees as in Ibn Majah (Ibn Majah 810)

 

5 Salam bin Saleem as in Abu Dawood Tayalisi's Musnad (Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1020)

 

The weakness of Narrator Muammal bin Ismail (RA):

Since the additional words in the narration "On His Chest" are only mentioned in the chain containing Mua'mmal Ibn Ismail (RA) it is critical to examine his strength as a narrator and here is what the Scholars have mentioned regarding him.

Imam Muhammad bin Nasar Al-Marwazi (RA) declared Muammal bin Ismail (RA) to be weak in memory and makes mistakes:

He is the great erudite Scholar Muhammad Ibn Nas'r Ibn Hajjaj Al-Marwazi (Abu Abdullah Al-Marwazi) who was born in Baghdad in 202 AH, grew up in Nishapur and settled in Samarqand. He traveled the centres of Islamic knowledge such as Khurasah, Ray, Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Madinutul-Munawarrah, Makkatul-Mukarramah, Syria and Egypt and learned under Masters of Hadeeth of the time Yahya Ibn At-Tamimi (RA), Ishaq Ibn Rahway (RA), Yunus Ibn Abdul-Aa'la (RA), Ibraheem Ibn Al-Mundhar (RA) amongst others and reached heights of knowledge which was recognized by many Scholars. Others said about him:

Ibn Hibban (RA) (Author of Saheeh Ibn Hibaan): He was one of the Imams of this world who collected and strove (towards knowledge), and he was knowledgeable of the (opinion of Scholars) of his time and their differences and most of the (Scholars) of the time had excelled in knowledge.

قال ابن حبان : «كان أحد الأئمة في الدنيا ممن جمع وصنف، وكان أعلم أهل زمانه بالاختلاف وأكثرهم صيانة في العلم.

Khateeb Baghdadi (RA): He was amongst those knowledgeable people who knew about differences (of opinions) amongst the Sahaba (RA) and those who came after them regarding injunctions.

قال الخطيب البغدادي : «كا\ن من أعلم الناس باختلاف الصحابة ومن بعدهم في الأحكام.

Imam Hakim (RA) writes about him, "The Imam of Hadeeth of his time, unmatched and unparalleled"

ذكره الحاكم فقال : إمام عصره بلا مدافعة في الحديث

Qadhi Muhammad Ibn Muhammad (RA) said that it has reached us from earlier Scholars that men (of knowledge) from Khurasan were four:

 

1 Abdullah Ibn Abi Mubarak (RA)


2 Ishaq Ibn Rahway (RA)


3 Yahya Ibn At-Tamimi (RA)


4 Muhammad Ibn Nas'r Ibn Hajjaj Al-Marwazi (Abu Abdullah Al-Marwazi)

 

وقال القاضي محمد بن محمد : كان الصدر الأول من مشايخنا يقولون : رجال خراسان أربعة : ابن المبارك , وابن راهويه , يحيى بن يحيى , ومحمد بن نصر.

Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Al-Asfaraini (RA) narrates that I heard Muhammad Ibn Adbullah Ibn Hakm' (RA) say, "Muhammad Ibn Nas'r (Al-Marwazi (RA)) was an Imam in Egypt so what is Khurasan?

قال عبد الله بن محمد الإسفراييني : سمعت محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد الحكم يقول : كان محمد بن نصر بمصر إماما. فكيف بخراسان ؟

Imam (Mufti) Ibnus-Salah (RA) classed him as a Shaf'ae and writes that he had in depth knowledge of sciences of Fiqh and Hadeeth and he was a Sahibul-Ikhtiyaar so he sometimes disagreed with the Shaf'ae Scholars and adopted another way and there is nothing (wrong) with this as in this he was like Ibn Khuzaima (RA), Al-Muzni (RA) and those before them like Abi-Thaur (RA).

This is one of the earliest and original record of a Scholar of Hadeeth contemporary of Imam Bukhari (RA) discrediting the narrations by Muammal bin Ismail (RA) by declaring him weak in memory and a person who makes many mistakes:

وأما ما روي عن الحسن وابن سيرين أنهما كانا يقولان مسلم ويهابان مؤمن فإن هذا حديث لم يروه عن حماد بن زيد غير المؤمل وإذا انفرد بحديث وجب أن توقف ويتثبت فيه لأنه كان سيء الحفظ كثير الغلط

 

Imam Yahya Ibn Ma'een (RA) reports that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) from Sufyan Thawri (RA) is not Hujjah:

سمعت يحيى يقول: (قبيصة) ليس بحجة في سفيان، ولا أبو حذيفة، ولا يحيى بن آدم، ولا مؤمل - معرفة الرجال لإبن معين  ج١ ص١١٤ س٥٤٩ - ابن محرز كما في سؤالاته ليحيى بن معين ج١ ص٥٦٠

I heard Yahya (Ibn Ma'een) say: "(Qabeesah) is not Hujjah in regards to (the narrations of) Sufyan (al-Thawri), so are Abu Hudhayfah, Yahya Ibn Adam and Muammal (Ibn Ismail) not Hujjah too". Ma'rifat al-Rijal Li-Ibn Ma'een (1/113 No. 549)/Ibn Muhriz Fee Su'alatihu Li-Ibn Ma'een (1/560)

This is a specific referrence of Yahya Ibn Ma'een (RA) about Muammal (Ibn Ismail) with regards to the narrations of Sufyan Thanwri (RA) while general references are quoted below in other references.

Imam Tirmidhi (RA) reports that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) made a mistake:

حدثنا محمود بن غيلان حدثنا مؤمل عن حماد بن سلمة عن حميد عن أنس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ألظوا بيا ذا الجلال والإكرام قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث غريب وليس بمحفوظ وإنما يروى هذا عن حماد بن سلمة عن حميد عن الحسن البصري عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهذا أصح ومؤمل غلط فيه فقال عن حميد عن أنس ولا يتابع فيه

Imam Tirmidhi related a hadith where Mu'ammal is in the chain and says: "This is a Ghareeb (strange) hadith and it is not preserved, this narration should be narrated as this; From Hammad Bin Salamah, from al-Hasan al-Basri from Nabi and this is (the) correct (chain), while Muammal bin Ismail (RA) made an error in his (sanad) and said; from Humayd from From Anas, he has no Mutab'iah (or anyone following / supporting him up) in this."

Three things to note from Imam al-Tirmidhi:

 

1 The narrations which were authenticated by al-Tirmidhi (Tahseen and Tas-heeh) only was so because Muammal bin Ismail had authentic Shawahid and Mutabi'ah.

 

2 In cases where there is an addition to the isnad and matn from Muammal bin Ismail then it is rejected by al-Tirmidhi and not preserved.

 

3 Muammal bin Ismail made errors.

 

Imam Nasa'i (RA) reports that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) makes many mistakes:

(حديث مرفوع) أَخْبَرَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ سَهْلٍ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا مُؤَمَّلٌ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ ، عَنْ عَاصِمٍ ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ ، أَن ّالنَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إِذَا خَرَجَ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ ، قَالَ : " اللَّهُمَّ أَنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَزِلَّ أَوْ أَضِلَّ ، أَوْ أَظْلِمَ أَوْ أُظْلَمَ ، أَوْ أَجْهَلَ أَوْ يُجْهَلَ عَلَيَّ " . قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ : هَذَا خَطَأٌ : عَاصِمٌ عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ ، وَالصَّوَابُ : شُعْبَةُ عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ ، وَمُؤَمَّلُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ كَثِيرُ الْخَطَأِ . خَالَفَهُ بَهْزُ بنُ أَسَدٍ رَوَاهُ ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ .

After narrating a hadith (a du'a), Abu Abdir Rahman said: "This is an error, (meaning) from 'Asim from Sha'bi, The correct (chain) is Shu'bah from Mansur, Muammal bin Ismail makes MANY MISTAKES, against him is Bahz Bin Asad in his transmission (of this hadith), (which states), from Shu'bah from Mansur"

Imam Ibn Haj'r Al-Haytami (RA) reports that Jamaah (majority) consider Muammal bin Ismail (RA) to be weak:

رواه الطبراني في الأوسط وفيه مؤمل بن إسماعيل وثقه ابن حبان وضعفه جماعة‏.‏

al-Haythami narrates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "It is narrated by al-Tabrani in al-Awsat and in it is Muammal bin Ismail (who is) Thiqah (according to) Ibn Hibban but the Jama'ah (majority) considered him weak".

رواه البزار وفيه مؤمل بن إسماعيل وثقه ابن معين وابن حبان وضعفه البخاري وغيره،وبقية رجاله ثقات

He relates a hadith from Musnad al-Bazzar and says: "It was narrated by al-Bazzar, and in it is Muammal bin Ismail, he thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een and Ibn Hibban, but weak according to al-Bukhari and other than him, and the rest of it's narrators are Thiqah"

رواه الطبراني من طريقين في إحداهما‏:‏ منصور بن دينار وهو ضعيف وفي الأخرى مؤمل بن إسماعيل وثقه ابن معين وضعفه الجمهور‏.‏

He relates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "It is related by al-Tabrani from two routes (chains), in the first of the two is Mansur Bin dinar and he is Weak and in the last is Muammal bin Ismail (he is) Thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een but weak according to the Jamhoor (Majority)"


رواه الطبراني وقال‏:‏ لم يرفعه عن حماد بن زيد إلا مؤمل بن إسماعيل،قلت‏:‏ ومؤمل ثقة كثير الخطأ وقد وثقه ابن معين وغيره وضعفه البخاري وغيره،وبقية رجاله ثقات‏


He again relates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "He (al-Tabrani) said: "No one else elevated it (i.e. made it Marfu') from Hammad Bin Zayd except Muammal bin Ismail", "I (al-Haythami) say: Mu'ammal is Thiqah but makes many mistakes, he is Thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een and other than him but weak according to al-Bukhari and other than him also, and the rest of it's narrators are Thiqah"

Imam Mizzi (RA) reports that Imam Bukhari (RA) declares Muammal bin Ismail (RA) Munkarul-Hadeeth:

وقال البخاري : منكر الحديث.

Imam Dhahabi (RA) reports that Imam Bukhari (RA) declares Muammal bin Ismail (RA) Munkarul-Hadeeth:

وقال البخاري : منكر الحديث

Imam Abu Hatim (RA) reports that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) makes mistakes:

قال سألت أبى عن مؤمل بن إسماعيل فقال صدوق شديد في السنة كثير الخطأ يكتب حديثه

...He (Ibn Abi Hatim) said i asked my father (Abu Hatim) regarding Muammal bin Ismail and he said Honest, Firm in Sunnah makes abundant mistakes, write his narrations...

 

وسئل عن مؤمل بن إسماعيل وأبى حذيفة فقال في كتبهما خطأ كثير وأبو حذيفة اقلهما خطأ

"he (Abu Hatim) was asked regarding Muammal bin Ismail and Abi Huzayfah and he said in their books are many errors while Abu Huzayfah made fewer mistakes of the two."

وقال غيره دفن كتبه فكان يحدث من حفظه فكثر خطأه

"It was also said that he buried his books and narrated by heart and thus erred alot"

Imam Hakim (RA) reports that Imam Dar Qutni (RA) declares Muammal bin Ismail (RA) makes many mistakes:

قال الحاكم قلتُ للدَّارَقُطْنِيِّ مؤمل بن إسماعيل ؟ قال صدوق كثير الخطأ. 492

al-Hakim said: "I said to al-Daraqutni (regarding) Muammal bin Ismail (RA) : He replied Sudooq (truthful) but many mistakes.

Imam Dar Qutni (RA) (RA) reports that his teacher doubted the memory of Muammal bin Ismail (RA):

2173 \ 9 - حدثنا أبو بكر النيسابوري ، ثنا حاجب بن سليمان ، ثنا مؤمل بن إسماعيل ، ثنا سفيان ، حدثني منصور ، عن أبي وائل ، قال : جاءنا كتاب عمر ونحن بخانقين : إن الأهلة بعضها أعظم من بعض ، فإذا رأيتم الهلال لأول النهار ، فلا تفطروا حتى يشهد رجلان ذوا عدل أنهما أهلاه بالأمس عشية . قال لنا أبو بكر : إن كان مؤمل حفظه فهو غريب . وخالفه الإمام عبد الرحمن بن مهدي .

After narrating a hadith where Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel is in the chain Imam al-Daraqutni says: "Abu Bakr (al-Naysaburi) informed us that if Muammal bin Ismail remembered it (this hadith) then it is Ghareeb, for he was opposed by al-Imam Abdur Rahman al-Mahdi".

 

Imam Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr (RA) specifically rejects Muammal bin Ismail (RA) with multiple report

[682] خت قد ت س ق البخاري في التعاليق وأبي داود في القدر والترمذي والنسائي وابن ماجة مؤمل بن إسماعيل العدوي مولى آل الخطاب وقيل مولى بني بكر أبو عبد الرحمن البصري نزيل مكة روى عن عكرمة بن عمار وأبي هلال الراسبي ونافع بن عمر الجمحي وشعبة والحمادين والسفيانين وغيرهم وعنه أحمد بن حنبل وإسحاق بن راهويه وعلي بن المديني وأبو موسى وبندار وأبو كريب وأبو الجوزاء أحمد بن عثمان النوفلي وعلي بن سهل الرملي ومحمود بن غيلان وأحمد بن نصر الفراء وآخرون قال بن أبي خيثمة عن بن معين ثقة وقال عثمان الدارمي قلت لابن معين أي شيء حاله فقال ثقة قلت هو أحب إليك أو عبيد الله يعني بن موسى فلم يفضل وقال أبو حاتم صدوق شديد في السنة كثير الخطأ وقال البخاري منكر الحديث وقال الآجري سألت أبا داود عنه فعظمه ورفع من شأنه إلا أنه يهم في الشيء وذكره بن حبان في الثقات وقال مات سنة ست ومائتين وفيها أرخه أبو القاسم بن مندة وزاد في رمضان وقال البخاري مات سنة خمس أو ست وقال غيره دفن كتبه فكان يحدث من حفظه فكثر خطأه قلت قال بن حبان في الثقات ربما أخطأ مات يوم الأحد لسبع عشرة ليلة خلت من شهر رمضان سنة ست ومائتين وهكذا أرخه البخاري عن بن أبي بزة قال البخاري أما ابنه فقال نحن من صلبية كنانة قال وحدثني من أثق به أنه مولى لبني بكر وقال يعقوب بن سفيان مؤمل أبو عبد الرحمن شيخ جليل سني سمعت سليمان بن حرب يحسن الثناء كان مشيختنا يوصون به إلا أن حديثه لا يشبه حديث أصحابه وقد يجب على أهل العلم أن يقفوا عن حديثه فإنه يروي المناكير عن ثقات شيوخه وهذا أشد فلو كانت هذه المناكير عن الضعفاء لكنا نجعل له عذرا وقال الساجي صدوق كثير الخطأ وله أوهام يطول ذكرها وقال بن سعد ثقة كثير الغلط وقال بن قانع صالح يخطئ وقال الدارقطني ثقة كثير الخطأ وقال إسحاق بن راهويه حدثنا مؤمل بن إسماعيل ثقة وقال محمد بن نصر المروزي المؤمل إذا انفرد بحديث وجب أن يتوقف ويثبت فيه لأنه كان سيء الحفظ كثير الغلط

Imam Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr Asqalani (RA) specifically mentions that there is weakness in naration between Muammal bin Ismail (RA) and Sufyan (RA) which is the chain of the hadeeth in question:

وكذلك مؤمل بن إسماعيل في حديثه عن الثوري ضعف

 

Shaykh Al-Albani (RA) specifically mentions that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) is weak in memory and the status of this Hadeeth in Ibn Khuzaimah is weak:

Shaykh (RA) however states that this Hadeeth is Authentic through other chains!

 

إسناده ضعيف لأن مؤملًا ـ وهوَ: ابن إسماعيل ـ سيِّئ الحفظ، لكن الحديث صحيح جاء من طرق أخرى بمعناه، وفي الوضع على الصدر أحاديث تشهد له

 

What about the fact that Imam Bukahri (RA) narrates from Muammal bin Ismail (RA)?

Imam Bukhari (RA) doesn't narrate anything from Muammal bin Ismail (RA) at all! The reality is the Hadeeth is as follows:

حدثنا عبد الله بن عبد الوهاب حدثنا حماد عن رجل لم يسمه عن الحسن قال خرجت بسلاحي ليالي الفتنة فاستقبلني أبو بكرة فقال أين تريد قلت أريد نصرة ابن عم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا تواجه المسلمان بسيفيهما [ ص: 2595 ] فكلاهما من أهل النار قيل فهذا القاتل فما بال المقتول قال إنه أراد قتل صاحبه

Narrated Al-Hasan: (Al-Ahnaf said:) I went out carrying my arms during the nights of the affliction (i.e. the war between 'Ali and 'Aisha) and Abu Bakra met me and asked, "Where are you going?" I replied, "I intend to help the cousin of Allah's Apostle (i.e.,'Ali)." Abu Bakra said, "Allah's Apostle said, 'If two Muslims take out their swords to fight each other, then both of them will be from amongst the people of the Hell-Fire.' It was said to the Prophet, 'It is alright for the killer but what about the killed one?' He replied, 'The killed one had the intention to kill his opponent.'" [Bukhari]

Then the following text appears beneath the actual Hadeeth:

قال حماد بن زيد فذكرت هذا الحديث لأيوب ويونس بن عبيد وأنا أريد أن يحدثاني به فقالا إنما روى هذا الحديث الحسن عن الأحنف بن قيس عن أبي بكرة حدثنا سليمان حدثنا حماد بهذا وقال مؤمل حدثنا حماد بن زيد حدثنا أيوب ويونس وهشام ومعلى بن زياد عن الحسن عن الأحنف عن أبي بكرة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ورواه معمر عن أيوب ورواه بكار بن عبد العزيز عن أبيه عن أبي بكرة وقال غندر حدثنا شعبة عن منصور عن ربعي بن حراش عن أبي بكرة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يرفعه سفيان عن منصور

Sayyidina Hammad Ibn Zayd (RA) states that then I narrated this Hadeeth to Ayub (RA)and Younus Ibn Abeed (RA) and these two individuals then narrated, Hasan (RA) narrated to Ahnaf Ibn Qays (RA) and he narrated to Abu Bakra (RA); we were narrated this Hadeeth from Salman and Hammad (RA) narrated it to him. Mumaal states that we were narrated Hadeeth from Hammad Ibn Zayd (RA) and he was narrated to by Ayub (RA), Younus (RA), Hisham (RA) and Ma’lla Ibn Zaiyad (RA) through the chain of Hasan (RA) and it was narrated to him by Sayyidina Abu Bakra (RA) and to him by Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  and a narration from Mu’mmar (RA) from the chain of Ayub (RA) and from him Sayyidina Abu Bakra (RA). And Ghandar (RA) narrates that Shu’ba narrated to him and Mansoor (RA) narrated to him and Rab’i Ibn Khirash (RA) narrated to him and Sayyidina Abu Bakra (RA) to him and Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)  to him and Sufyan (RA) didn’t narrate it as Marfoo from the chain of Mansoor (RA).

 

1 Muammal bin Ismail (RA) is mentioned in the Taleeqat of Saheeh Bukhari and there is no Hadeeth narrated from him at all!

 

Responses to other objections on Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) by Zubair Ali Zai (Ahl-e-Hadeeth)

The personal practise of Sufyan Thawri (RA) of placing the hands beneath the Navel

As explained earlier that none of the students of Sufyan Thawri (RA) narrate these additional wordings of "On His Chest"  and it is also note that Imam Sufyan Thawri (RA) was from the people of knowledge of Kufa (i.e. that he followed the School of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)) and he was of the opinion that hands should be placed beneath the Navel in Salah as mentioned by the authoritative book of Hanblai Madhab, Al-Mughni:

( 662 ) مسألة : قال : ( ويجعلهما تحت سرته ) اختلفت الرواية في موضع وضعهما ، فروي عن أحمد ، أنه يضعهما تحت سرته . روي ذلك عن علي ، وأبي هريرة وأبي مجلز ، والنخعي ، والثوري ، وإسحاق ; لما روي عن علي رضي الله عنه قال : من السنة وضع اليمين على الشمال تحت السرة . رواه الإمام أحمد ، وأبو داود . وهذا ينصرف إلى سنة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولأنه قول من ذكرنا من الصحابة .

It is inconceivable that Sufyan Thawri (RA) had an authentic narration of placing the hands upon the chest and yet chose to disregard it and practised placing the hands beneath the navel!

Specific Hadeeth No 2 about placing hands upon the chest:

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ , عَنْ سُفْيَانَ , حَدَّثَنِي سِمَاكٌ , عَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ هُلْبٍ , عَنْ أَبِيهِ , قَالَ : رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَنْصَرِفُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَعَنْ يَسَارِهِ , وَرَأَيْتُهُ قَالَ يَضَعُ هَذِهِ عَلَى صَدْرِهِ

Sayyiduna Hulb (ra) relates, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) turn from both his right and left and I also saw him place this upon his chest.' Yahya (one of the narrators) described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint. (Ahmad 21460.)

Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p. 113 that both Simak bin Harb and Qabeesah (two of the narrators of this hadeeth) have been disparaged by some of the ulama of jarh and t'adeel.)

The above hadeeth contains the words 'upon his chest'. This extra wording is not firmly established or confirmed, because of all the narrators who report this hadeeth from Simak, only one reports this extra wording.

Observe the following narrations of the same hadeeth without the extra wording of 'upon his chest'.

1 Abu al Ahwas reports from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right.

 

حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد عن سفيان حدثني سماك عن قبيصة بن هلب عن أبيه قال رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ينصرف عن يمينه وعن يساره ورأيته قال يضع هذه على صدره وصف يحيى اليمنى على اليسرى فوق المفصل


2 Shareek reports from Simak from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says (towards the end of a longer hadeeth), 'I saw him place one of his hands on the other and I also saw him turn once towards his right and once towards his left.'

 

حدثنا زكريا بن يحيى بن صبيح حدثنا شريك عن سماك عن قبيصة بن الهلب عن أبيه قال سألت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن طعام النصارى فقال لا يحيكن في صدرك طعام ضارعت فيه النصرانية قال ورأيته يضع إحدى يديه على الأخرى


3 Wakee reports from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer and I also saw him turn away from both his right and left.'

حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة حدثنا وكيع عن سفيان عن سماك بن حرب عن قبيصة بن الهلب عن أبيه قال رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم واضعا يمينه على شماله في الصلاة ورأيته ينصرف عن يمينه وعن شماله


4 Daraqutni narrates from Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi and Wakee', from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer.' (Daraqutni 1087)

 حدثنا أبو محمد بن صاعد ، نا يعقوب بن إبراهيم الدورقي ، ثنا عبد الرحمن بن مهدي ، عن سفيان ، ح : وحدثنا محمد بن مخلد ، نا محمد بن إسماعيل الحساني ، ثنا وكيع ، ثنا سفيان ، عن سماك ، عن قبيصة بن هلب ، عن أبيه ، قال : " رأيت رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - واضعا يمينه على شماله في الصلاة

The above narrations all clearly show that the wording 'upon his chest' is an unreliable addition on the part of one of the reporters and therefore this particular narration is shaadh.

Imam Nimawi adds in his al T'aleeq al Hasan (1/145): 'I have a suspicion that the wording of this hadeeth has mistakenly been changed by a writer. The correct words would appear to be "Yadhau hadhihi ala hadhihi", i.e., "he would place this hand upon this hand", and not "hadhihi ala sadrihi", i.e., "this hand upon his chest". Only this wording would be in agreement with the narrators own interpretation of the hadeeth as is stated in the narration "Yahya described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint". This would also tally with all the other narrations of this hadeeth that do not contain the wording "upon the chest", and would also explain why the following authors have not included this narration in their comprehensive books: Haithami in his Majm'a al Zawaid, Suyuti in his Jam' al Jawami, and Ali al Muttaqi in his Kanz alUmmal. And Allah knows best.'

The author of Awn al M'abud also admits that Yahya's commentary does not fit the wording of the hadeeth.

Even if we were to take this Hadeeth which is Shaadh (in isolation) and differs from various narrations the narration and ignore that fact then the narator Simaak Ibn Harb (RA) is weak as mentioned by many Masters of Hadeeth is as follows:


أبو حاتم بن حبان البستي يخطئ كثيرا

الدارقطني سيء الحفظ

الذهبي ثقة ساء حفظه، أحد أعلام الكوفة

سفيان الثوري كان يضعفه بعض الضعف، ومرة: ضعيف، ومرة: ما سقط لسماك بن حرب حديث

ابن المبارك سماك ضعيف في الحديث .

شعبة بن الحجاج ضعفه

صالح بن محمد جزرة يضعف

عبد الرحمن بن يوسف بن خراش في حديثه لين

محمد بن عبد الله المخرمي ضعيف في الحديث

يعقوب بن سفيان الفسوي مضطرب

محمد بن عمار الموصلي يقولون كان يغلط، ويختلفون في حديثه

يعقوب بن شيبة السدوسي صالح وليس من المثبتين

Even if we were to take this Hadeeth which is Shaadh (in isolation) and differs from various narrations the narration and ignore that fact and also ignore the fact that Simaak Ibn Harb (RA) is weak then the next narrator is also weak according to Masters of Hadeeth:


أحمد بن شعيب النسائي مجهول

علي بن المديني مجهول، لم يرو عنه غير سماك بن حرب

Specific Hadeeth No 3 about placing hands upon the chest:

Taawoos narrates that The Messenger of Allah [salallahu alayhi wa sallam] used to place his right hand over his left, and then clasp them firmly on his chest during prayer. (Abu Dawood 759)

Imam Nimawi has declared this hadeeth to be weak. (al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/145. Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p27 that the authenticity of two of its narrators has been disputed: Sulaiman bin Musa and Haitham bin Humaid.)

This hadith is mursal and its isnad contains Sulaiman bin Musa who has been classified as weak by some scholars. Bukhari claims that he has munkar narrations. Nasai says that he is not strong in Hadeeth. Hafidh says in al Taqreeb, "He is a sadooq and faqeeh. There is some (leen) "weakness" in his hadeeth." Furthermore, Abu Dawood has recorded the same narration in his Maraseel but with a different wording. Instead of "he clasped them firmly on his chest" that narration reads "he entwined the fingers of his hands on his chest. [Maraseel Abi Dawood, p85]

This hadeeth is also mursal and although mursal narrations are not readily accepted by others, the Hanafi Ulama consider them acceptable as evidence. Therefore, as some have pointed out, this narration is binding on us. However, we say that the saheeh hadith of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr [radiyallahu anhu] narrated by Ibn Abi Shaibah takes precedence and the ahadeeth of Sayyidina Ali (ra) and Siyyiduna Abu Hurairah (ra) are more acceptable to us because they explicitly mention the sunnah being below the navel. Tawoos's words "he would" cannot match the words of the companions "it is sunnah". Also as mentioned earlier the very wording of Tawoos's hadeeth is in dispute. Moreover, Tawoos's mursal narration is opposed to the mursal narrations of Ibrahim al Nakhai and Abu Mijlaz.

Specific Hadeeth No 4 about placing hands upon the chest:

Sayyiduna Wail ibn Hujr (ra) narrates, ''I was present with the Prophet [salallahu alahyi wasalam]. He rose, went towards the masjid and entered the mihraab. He raised his hands with takbeer and then placed his right hand over his left upon his chest.'' (Bayhaqi 2335)

Imam Nimawi says, "Its isnad is extremely weak. Dhahabi has said about Muhammad bin Hujr in Mizaan that he has munkar narrations. Bukhari has said that there is a question about him. [Bukhari often uses this expression to desribe the weakness of a narrator]. Ibn al Turkmani says, "The mother of Abdul Jabbar is the mother of Yahya. I do no know her name or her details (grade of reliability)." Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar is also weak. Dhahabi quotes Nasai in his Mizaan as saying that Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar is not strong. Hafidh ibn Hajar says in Taqreeb, "Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar al Hadhrami al Kufi is weak." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/145]

Specific Hadeeth No 5 about placing hands upon the chest:

Aqabah bin Sahban reports that Sayyiduna Ali (ra) commenting on the verse [So pray unto thy Lord, and sacrifice] explained, that this means to place the right hand upon the middle of the left upon the chest. (Bayhaqi 2337)

Ibn al Turkmani says that both the sanad and the text of this narration are mudhtarib. [al Jawhar al Naqiyy 2/46]

Specific Hadeeth No 6 about placing hands upon the chest:

Abu al Jawz reports from Sayyiduna ibn Abbas (ra) that he said of the verse [So pray unto thy Lord, and sacrifice]: This means placing the right hand upon the left in prayer, on the chest.(Bayhaqi 2339).

Allamah Hashim says in Dirham al Surrah p28, "The hadeeth is weak on two accounts: because it is muqati' and also because three of its narrators, Amr, Yahya and Rawh are weak. So this should be considered. Furthermore, the authors of Muheet al Burhani and Majm'a al Bahrain have narrated a marf'u hadetteh from Ibn Abbas [radiyallahu anhu] with the words "It is part of sunnah to place the right hand upon the left below the navel in salah.")

Imam Nimawi has declared the isnad of this narration to be weak, "Rawh bin al Musayyab is matrook [abandoned]. Ibn Hibban says that Rawh Ibn al Musayyab narrates and ascribes fabricated traditions even to reliable authorities. It is not permissible to narrate from him. Ibn Adiyy says that his narrations are not preserved." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/146]

The sanad also contains a third narrator, Amr bin Malik al Nakri. Ibn al Turkmani writes of him in al Jawhar al Naqiyy saying, "Ibn Adiyy has said that Amr al Nakri is munkar al Hadeeth even when narrating from reliable authorities. He plagiarised narration and Abu Ya'la al Mawsili declared him dhaeef." [al Jawhar al Naqiyy 2/47]

The correct Tafseer of this verse: Ibn Jareer al Tabari, quoting the tafseer of the ulama which he states is the most correct, writes: "The meaning of this verse is that "Oh Porophet of Allah! Make all your prayers sincere for the sake of your Lord, whithout any share for other false gods and deities, and also make all your sacrifices solely for the sake of your Lord without any share for other idols." [Ibn Jareer al Tabari in his Tafseer 12/724]

Hadeeth No 7 with implied meanings of placing hands upon the chest:

Ibn Jarir al Dhabbiyy reports from his father who said, "I saw Ali (ra) clasping his left hand with his right on the wrist, above the navel.'' (Abu Dawood 757)

Imam Nimawi writes in Aathar al Sunan that the additional wording "above the navel" is not authentic and established. The same hadeeth has been narrated in al Safinah al Jaraidiyyah on the authority of Muslim bin Ibrahim, one of Bukhari's shaykhs, in al Musannaf of Abu Bakr bin Abi Shaibah, [Ibn Abi Shaibah 3940 & 8722] and in Bukhari [in the chapters relating to actions in salah] in muallaq, abridged form. However, none of these narrations contain the extra wording "above the navel". The only narrator to include this additional wording in the hadeeth is Abu Badr Shuja bin al Walid narrating from Abu Talut Abdus Salam bin Abi Hazim. Shuja' has been considered reliable by some, but Abu Hatim says of him as quoted by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in his introduction [to Fath al Bari], and by Dhahabi in his Mizan that "He is weak in hadeeth; a shaykh who is not strong and therefore, his word cannot be acceptable in evidence, although he has saheeh ahadeeth from Muhammad bin Amr bin Alqamah." Hafidh Ibn Hajar also says in his Taqreeb, "He is pious, sudooq and he has mistakes." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/146]

Does the Qur'aan imply about placing hands upon the Chest?

Absolutely Not! It is claimed that in the Tafseer of فصل لربك وانحر  c[108:2] So, offer Salah (prayer) to your Lord, and sacrifice certain Scholars have claimed that the word وانحر (Sacrifice) relates to placing the hands upon the chest. Imam Al-Hafidh Ibn Katheer (RA) discussed the matter in his Tafseer and concludes:

كل هذه الأقوال غريبة جدا والصحيح القول الأول، أن المراد بالنحر ذبح المناسك

All of these opinions are very strange, and the correct opinion is the first one, that what is intended by نحر is ritual sacrifice of an animal.

Does Saheeh Bukhari narrate about placing hands upon the Chest?

Absolutely Not! Here is the evidence claimed by others:

عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ ، قَالَ : " كَانَ النَّاسُ يُؤْمَرُونَ أَنْ يَضَعَ الرَّجُلُ الْيَدَ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى ذِرَاعِهِ الْيُسْرَى فِي الصَّلَاةِ " ، قَالَ أَبُو حَازِمٍ : لَا ، أَعْلَمُهُ إِلَّا يَنْمِي ذَلِكَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

Sayyidina Sahl b. Sa'd (RA) said, "The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in the prayer." Sayyidina Abu Haazim (RA) said, "I did not know it except as the order from the Prophet (Sallallaahu 'alayhi wasallam)" [Bukhari]

Heavy conjecture with the Hadeeth of Saheeh Bukhari!

1 Can someone spot anything about the chest in this Hadeeth?

 

2 Those upon conjecture answer, "The answer is that pay close attention to the wording. The Sunnah is to put the right hand upon the left forearm, which is the area between the wrist and the elbow. When your right hand is upon your left elbow then the matter will become clear to you."

The conjecture is ofcourse upon the specific word of the Hadeeth ذِرَاعِهِ which actually means in Arabic من المِرْفقِ إلى الرسغ ("From the Elbow to the Wrist") . Now place your right hand upon the left hand anywhere from from the Elbow to the Wrist and the matter will become clear to you immediately! You will find a contradiction here as follows:

 

1 You can either place your hands on the chest (directly)

 

2 OR cover the entire area between from the "Elbow to the Wrist". In order to do so you will need to move your hands below the Chest.

 

Due to the anatomy of the human body it is not possible to carry both of these simultaneously, in order to illustrate the point we have drawn red lines across the chest of the gentlemen below and red circles where the area mentioned in the Hadeeth ذِرَاعِهِ which actually means in Arabic من المِرْفقِ إلى الرسغ ("From the Elbow to the Wrist") is still visible. Note the following in the picture:

 

1 Note the position of the hands with respect to the chest

 

2 Note the position of the right hand to the left hand and areas which are covered

 

3 Note the actual positioning of the right hand upon the left hand i.e. some are clasping while others are merely placing the right hand upon the left.

 

4 Subsequently to point 3, note the angle of right hand which obviously differs when someone grabs or clasps or merely places it flat.

 

 hands chest-2

Before moving onto the chapter heading in Saheeh Muslim please understand that this interpretation is based on conjecture otherwise the words chest, or below the chest or above or below the Navel are not mentioned anywhere in the Hadeeth at all. If someone wants to derive placing the hands upon the chest and ذِرَاعِهِ which actually means in Arabic من المِرْفقِ إلى الرسغ ("From the Elbow to the Wrist")  also from this Hadeeth then it is their speculation (as a human) and not Hadeeth of Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallallho Alaihe Wassallam).

Last but not least if people want to employ conjecture and make Qiyas upon the Hadeeth of Sayyidina Rasul-ullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then others who hold a different opinion should also be allowed to employ conjecture to prove their position, why the double standards? We are not presenting this picture as evidence it’s actually displayed by those who propose the idea of placing the hands upon the chest, we would rather deal strictly with Qur’aan & Sunnah and not put pictures of Dr Zakir Naik and others as evidence.

Does Saheeh Muslim narrate about placing hands upon the Chest?

Absolutely Not! Here is the Chapter heading from Saheeh Muslim:

باب وضع اليمنى على اليسرى بعد تكبيرة الإحرام تحت الصدر وفي السجود على الأرض حذو منكبيه

The placing of the right hand over the left hand after the first Takbir in prayer (Takbir-i-Tahrima) below the chest and placing them opposite the shoulders in prostration.

And here is the actual Hadeeth from Saheeh Muslim:

حدثنا زهير بن حرب حدثنا عفان حدثنا همام حدثنا محمد بن جحادة حدثني عبد الجبار بن وائل عن علقمة بن وائل ومولى لهم أنهما حدثاه عن أبيه وائل بن حجر أنه رأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رفع يديه حين دخل في الصلاة كبر وصف همام حيال أذنيه ثم التحف بثوبه ثم وضع يده اليمنى على اليسرى فلما أراد أن يركع أخرج يديه من الثوب ثم رفعهما ثم كبر فركع فلما قال سمع الله لمن حمده رفع يديه فلما سجد سجد بين كفيه

Sayyidina Wa'il b. Hujr (RA) reported: He saw the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down, and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:" Allah listened to him who praised Him." And when prostrates. he prostrated between the two palms. [Muslim]

Conflict between placing the hands upon the Chest and Hadeeth of Saheeh Muslim!

There are five problems with using this Hadeeth as evidence for those who propose placing the hands upon the chest in Salah:

 

1 The insertion of تحت الصدر "Below the Chest" into the chapter heading is actually from Imam Nawawi (RA) and Imam Muslim (RA) didn't state that.

 

2 The chapter heading clearly states "Below the Chest"!

 

3 Imam Muslim (RA) has only brought one Hadeeth in this Chapter and if we are to assume that there is a connection between the Hadeeth and the Chapter heading then although there is no mention of placing the hands (in the Hadeeth) we assume that it is meant to imply "Below the Chest"!

 

4 If this narration of Sayyidina Wa'il b. Hujr (RA) is meant to imply "Below the Chest" then it contradicts with the narration (presented in number 1 of this article) by Sayyidina Wa'il b. Hujr (RA) where he specifically mentions "On His Chest". 

 

5 Now go back and take a good look at the picture of the various gentlemen praying and judge for yourself if their hands are "Below the Chest" or "upon the Chest"? If you were to look at the picture honestly and with a fair mind then you will notice that some of them have their hands way below the chest while others slightly below!

 

Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (RA) declares placing hands upon the chest in Salah Makrooh:

و يجعلهما تحت سرته، أو تحت صدره، من غير كراهة لواحد منهما والأول أفضل في إحدى الروايات عنه، اختارها الخرقي والقاضي و غيرهما رواه أحمد وابو داود والدرقطني عن أبي جحيفة قال قال علي رضي الله عنه - إن من السنة وضع الأكفّ على الأكفّ تحت السرة - و يذكر ذلك من حديث ابن مسعود عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وقد احتج به الإمام أحمد.

وروى ابن بطة عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه - من السنة أن يضع يده اليمنى في الصلاة تحت السرة - والصحابي إذا قال - السنة - انصرف إلى سنة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، ولأن ذلك أبعد عن التكفير المكروه

وفي الأخرى: تحت الصدر أفضل، اختارها طائفة من أصحابنا، لما روى خرير الضبي قال - رأيت عليا يمسك شماله بيمينه على الرسغ فوق السرة - رواه ابو داود وروى قبيصة بن هلب عن أبيه قال - رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يضع هذه على صدره - ووضع يحيى بن سعيد - اليمنى على اليسرى فوق المفصل - رواه أحمد.

والرواية الثالثة هما سواء: اختارها ابن أبي موسى غيره لتعارض الآثار في ذلك.

فأما وضعهما على الصدر، فيكره، نص عليه وذكر عن أبي أيوب عن أبي معشر قال: يكره التكفير في الصلاة، و قال: التكفير: يضع يمينه عند صدره في الصلاة

Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (RA) forbids placing hands upon the chest in Salah and declares placing them beneath the Navel as Sunnah:

Firstly, the noble Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (RA) states that the additional words of "On His Chest" are narrated by none other then Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) as discussed here and the narration is in fact weak.

Secondly, he also states that the correct Sunnah is to place the hands in Salah beneath the Navel.

قال ابن القيم في بدائع الفوائد: إنَّ السنة الصحيحة وضع اليدين تحت السرة، وحديث علي في هذا صحيح، وإنَّ وضع اليدين على الصدرمنهي عنه بالسنة وهي: "النهي عن التكفير"