Weak Ahadeeth,Fadhail (Virtues) & Fazail e Amaal


{jb_quote}In the present day climate it is often opined that the usage of Weak (Da’ef) Ahadeeth is forbidden in Islam and there is a genuine move amongst certain circles to purge the Hadeeth collection of Weak (Da’ef) narrations. Although the opinions and Fatawa of certain Scholars (of the past and present) can be presented in support of this position (of discouragement) towards the usage of Weak (Da’ef) Ahadeeth, nevertheless there exists an overwhelming majority of Islamic Scholars (from Salaf & Khalaf) who not only permitted its usage but their publications contained these (i.e. Weak Narrations) in abundance. {/jb_quote}

Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (RA) on weak HadithShaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (RA) on weak Hadith

Translated by Shaykh Omar Subedar (HA)

Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (RA) said, “When [an issue pertaining to] ḥalāl and ḥarām [is discussed in the aḥādīth], we are stringent [over accepting] their transmission chains (asānīd). However, if [information on] encouraging [good deeds] and discouraging [evil ones] is discussed, we are relaxed with their asānīd.” This is the stance of scholars on practicing weak ḥadiths relating to the virtues of deeds (faḍāʾil al-aʿmāl). This does not imply that recommended practices (istiḥbāb) are to be established through narrations that cannot serve as evidence; for istiḥbāb is a ruling of Islamic law (sharīʿah) that can only be established through evidence [that is acceptable in the] sharīʿah. If any person asserts that Allāh favours a practice, without [acceptable] sharīʿah based proof, they have legislated something in the religion that Allāh has not authorized. This is the same for establishing a mandatory practice or a prohibition. It is for this reason scholars differ over istiḥbāb just as they differ over other [sharīʿah based] issues. Rather sharīʿah is the foundation of the religion that has been legislated [for us].

Scholars simply mean that practices will [only] be based on what is proven through scripture or [a scholarly] consensus such as [the practices of] reciting the Qurʾān, glorifying [Allāh] (tasbīḥ), making a prayer (duʿāʾ) , donating to charity, freeing a slave, being professional with people, and disapproving of lying and betrayal. So when a ḥadīth mentions the virtues of certain recommended deeds and [speaks about] their reward, or on the repugnance of other deeds and their penalties; the amount of reward or punishment and its various types when narrated in a ḥadīth we do not know to be forged; sharing that narration with others and practicing it is permissible. This implies that a person will hope for that reward or fear the [mentioned] punishment, like a man who knows a business to be profitable however later he is told it is extremely profitable. If he believes it, it will avail him, and if he refuses to accept it, it will be of no detriment to him. An example of this is to encourage good deeds and dissuade from evil ones through Judaic scripture, dreams, the words of the predecessors and scholars, the stories of scholars etc; things that cannot be used independently to establish sharīʿah rulings, recommendations or anything else. They are however, allowed to be mentioned for encouraging good deeds, dissuading [people] from evil ones, giving hope and instilling fear.

Whatever is known to be good or bad through sharīʿah based proofs, that information is beneficial and not harmful, irrespective of whether it is really true or false. Whatever information is confirmed to be false and forged, no one is allowed to give it any attention, for a lie is of no benefit whatsoever. However, if it is established to be true, rules and regulations will be formed in light of it. When there is the possibility of the information being either one (i.e. true or false), it may be shared due to the possibility of it being true and unharmful if it is a lie.

Aḥmad (RA) simply said, “If [information on] encouraging [good deeds] and discouraging [people from evil ones] is discussed, we are relaxed with their asānīd,” and meant that we will share that information with their respected transmission chains even though its narrators are not among the authorities who [we] rely on. It is regarding this certain people have said, “These narrations can be used to discuss the virtues of deeds.” Practicing them is to apply the information found in them i.e. good deeds such as reciting [the Qurʾān], remembering [Allāh], and to refrain from the disapproved
activities mentioned in them.

An example of this is the Prophet’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) statement in a ḥadīth Bukhārī r has recorded from ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAmr (RA), “Convey from me even if it may be a verse, and report from the Children of Israel without it being an issue. And whoever lies about me deliberately, they should occupy their sitting place in the Fire [of Hell],” with his statement in another authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) ḥadīth, “When the People of the scripture tell you anything [from their scriptures], do not believe them nor reject them.”[Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 4485] The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) has allowed [us] to share narrations from them however he has forbidden us from believing them or rejecting them. Had there been no benefit in generally reporting from them, he would not have allowed it nor instructed it. And had believing them just by reporting from them was allowed, he would not have forbidden us from believing them. People benefit from what they assume to be true in a number of cases.

When weak aḥādīth on virtues contain specifications and valuations such as performing ṣalāh at a specific time with a specific recital or in a specific way, this would be impermissible to follow because the recommendation of this particular method is not established through sharīʿah based evidence, as opposed to a narration which states that whoever enters the marketplace and says, “Lā ilāha illa l-lāh,” they will receive such and such reward, for taking Allāh’s name is recommended in the marketplace due to Allāh being remembered among the neglectful. It has been mentioned in a well known narration, “Taking Allāh’s name among the heedless is like a green tree among dry trees.”

As for the rewards reported in such narrations, establishing them is of no harm nor is [there harm in] refusing to establish them. It is in respect to this a ḥadīth recorded by Tirmidhī states, “Whoever receives information from Allāh pertaining to some virtue and they practice the deed in hope of receiving that virtue, Allāh will grant it to them even if that is not the case.”

In conclusion, narrations of this type may be shared and practiced for the sake of encouraging [good deeds] and dissuading [people from evil ones] but not in the areas of istiḥbāb. Thereafter, believing in their outcomes i.e. their fixed reward or penalty is dependent on sharīʿah based evidence.

[Source: Taymīyah, T. Majmūʿ Fatāwá, Vol. 18, Section 65-68]

قَالَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ فَصْلٌ قَوْلُ أَحْمَد بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ : إذَا جَاءَ الْحَلَالُ وَالْحَرَامُ شَدَّدْنَا فِي الْأَسَانِيدِ ; وَإِذَا جَاءَ التَّرْغِيبُ وَالتَّرْهِيبُ تَسَاهَلْنَا فِي الْأَسَانِيدِ ; وَكَذَلِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ مِنْ الْعَمَلِ بِالْحَدِيثِ الضَّعِيفِ فِي فَضَائِلِ الْأَعْمَالِ : لَيْسَ مَعْنَاهُ إثْبَاتُ الِاسْتِحْبَابِ بِالْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي لَا يُحْتَجُّ بِهِ ; فَإِنَّ الِاسْتِحْبَابَ حُكْمٌ شَرْعِيٌّ فَلَا يَثْبُتُ إلَّا بِدَلِيلِ شَرْعِيٍّ وَمَنْ أَخْبَرَ عَنْ اللَّهِ أَنَّهُ يُحِبُّ عَمَلًا مِنْ الْأَعْمَالِ مِنْ غَيْرِ دَلِيلٍ شَرْعِيٍّ فَقَدْ شَرَعَ مِنْ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَنْ بِهِ اللَّهُ كَمَا لَوْ أَثْبَتَ الْإِيجَابَ أَوْ التَّحْرِيمَ ; وَلِهَذَا يَخْتَلِفُ الْعُلَمَاءُ فِي الِاسْتِحْبَابِ كَمَا يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِي غَيْرِهِ بَلْ هُوَ أَصْلُ الدِّينِ الْمَشْرُوعِ .

وَإِنَّمَا مُرَادُهُمْ بِذَلِكَ : أَنْ يَكُونَ الْعَمَلُ مِمَّا قَدْ ثَبَتَ أَنَّهُ مِمَّا يُحِبُّهُ اللَّهُ أَوْ مِمَّا يَكْرَهُهُ اللَّهُ بِنَصِّ أَوْ إجْمَاعٍ كَتِلَاوَةِ الْقُرْآنِ ; وَالتَّسْبِيحِ وَالدُّعَاءِ ; وَالصَّدَقَةِ وَالْعِتْقِ ; وَالْإِحْسَانِ إلَى النَّاسِ ; وَكَرَاهَةِ الْكَذِبِ وَالْخِيَانَةِ ; وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ فَإِذَا رُوِيَ حَدِيثٌ فِي فَضْلِ بَعْضِ الْأَعْمَالِ [ ص: 66 ] الْمُسْتَحَبَّةِ وَثَوَابِهَا وَكَرَاهَةِ بَعْضِ الْأَعْمَالِ وَعِقَابِهَا : فَمَقَادِيرُ الثَّوَابِ وَالْعِقَابِ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ إذَا رُوِيَ فِيهَا حَدِيثٌ لَا نَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ مَوْضُوعٌ جَازَتْ رِوَايَتُهُ وَالْعَمَلُ بِهِ بِمَعْنَى : أَنَّ النَّفْسَ تَرْجُو ذَلِكَ الثَّوَابَ أَوْ تَخَافُ ذَلِكَ الْعِقَابَ كَرَجُلِ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّ التِّجَارَةَ تَرْبَحُ لَكِنْ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّهَا تَرْبَحُ رِبْحًا كَثِيرًا فَهَذَا إنْ صَدَقَ نَفَعَهُ وَإِنْ كَذَبَ لَمْ يَضُرَّهُ ; وَمِثَالُ ذَلِكَالتَّرْغِيبُ وَالتَّرْهِيبُ بالإسرائيليات ; وَالْمَنَامَاتِ وَكَلِمَاتِ السَّلَفِ وَالْعُلَمَاءِ ; وَوَقَائِعِ الْعُلَمَاءِ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا لَا يَجُوزُ بِمُجَرَّدِهِ إثْبَاتُ حُكْمٍ شَرْعِيٍّ ; لَا اسْتِحْبَابٍ وَلَا غَيْرِهِ وَلَكِنْ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُذْكَرَ فِي التَّرْغِيبِ وَالتَّرْهِيبِ ; وَالتَّرْجِيَةِ وَالتَّخْوِيفِ .

فَمَا عُلِمَ حُسْنُهُ أَوْ قُبْحُهُ بِأَدِلَّةِ الشَّرْعِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يَنْفَعُ وَلَا يَضُرُّ وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَ فِي نَفْسِ الْأَمْرِ حَقًّا أَوْ بَاطِلًا فَمَا عُلِمَ أَنَّهُ بَاطِلٌ مَوْضُوعٌ لَمْ يُجَزْ الِالْتِفَاتُ إلَيْهِ ; فَإِنَّ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفِيدُ شَيْئًا وَإِذَا ثَبَتَ أَنَّهُ صَحِيحٌ أُثْبِتَتْ بِهِ الْأَحْكَامُ وَإِذَا احْتَمَلَ الْأَمْرَيْنِ رُوِيَ لِإِمْكَانِ صِدْقِهِ وَلِعَدَمِ الْمَضَرَّةِ فِي كَذِبِهِ وَأَحْمَد إنَّمَا قَالَ : إذَا جَاءَ التَّرْغِيبُ وَالتَّرْهِيبُ تَسَاهَلْنَا فِي الْأَسَانِيدِ . وَمَعْنَاهُ : أَنَّا نَرْوِي فِي ذَلِكَ بِالْأَسَانِيدِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مُحْدِثُوهَا مِنْ الثِّقَاتِ الَّذِينَ يُحْتَجُّ بِهِمْ . فِي ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ مَنْ قَالَ : يُعْمَلُ بِهَا فِي فَضَائِلِ الْأَعْمَالِ إنَّمَا الْعَمَلُ بِهَا الْعَمَلُ بِمَا فِيهَا مِنْ [ ص: 67 ] الْأَعْمَالِ الصَّالِحَةِ مِثْلَ التِّلَاوَةِ وَالذِّكْرِ وَالِاجْتِنَابِ لِمَا كُرِهَ فِيهَا مِنْ الْأَعْمَالِ السَّيِّئَةِ .

وَنَظِيرُ هَذَا قَوْلُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو : { بَلِّغُوا عَنِّي وَلَوْ آيَةً وَحَدِّثُوا عَنْ بَنِي إسْرَائِيلَ وَلَا حَرَجَ وَمَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيَّ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنْ النَّارِ } مَعَ قَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ : { إذَا حَدَّثَكُمْ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ فَلَا تُصَدِّقُوهُمْ وَلَا تُكَذِّبُوهُمْ } فَإِنَّهُ رَخَّصَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ عَنْهُمْ وَمَعَ هَذَا نَهَى عَنْ تَصْدِيقِهِمْ وَتَكْذِيبِهِمْ فَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي التَّحْدِيثِ الْمُطْلَقِ عَنْهُمْ فَائِدَةٌ لِمَا رَخَّصَ فِيهِ وَأَمَرَ بِهِ وَلَوْ جَازَ تَصْدِيقُهُمْ بِمُجَرَّدِ الْإِخْبَارِ لَمَا نَهَى عَنْ تَصْدِيقِهِمْ ; فَالنُّفُوسُ تَنْتَفِعُ بِمَا تَظُنُّ صِدْقَهُ فِي مَوَاضِعَ .

فَإِذَا تَضَمَّنَتْ أَحَادِيثُ الْفَضَائِلِ الضَّعِيفَةِ تَقْدِيرًا وَتَحْدِيدًا مِثْلَ صَلَاةٍ فِي وَقْتٍ مُعَيَّنٍ بِقِرَاءَةِ مُعَيَّنَةٍ أَوْ عَلَى صِفَةٍ مُعَيَّنَةٍ لَمْ يَجُزْ ذَلِكَ ; لِأَنَّ اسْتِحْبَابَ هَذَا الْوَصْفِ الْمُعَيَّنَ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ بِدَلِيلِ شَرْعِيٍّ بِخِلَافِ مَا لَوْ رُوِيَ فِيهِ مَنْ دَخَلَ السُّوقَ فَقَالَ : لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ كَانَ لَهُ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَإِنَّ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ فِي السُّوقِ مُسْتَحَبٌّ لِمَا فِيهِ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ بَيْنَ الْغَافِلِينَ كَمَا جَاءَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ الْمَعْرُوفِ : { ذَاكِرُ اللَّهِ فِي الْغَافِلِينَ كَالشَّجَرَةِ الْخَضْرَاءِ بَيْنَ الشَّجَرِ الْيَابِسِ } .

[ ص: 68 ] فَأَمَّا تَقْدِيرُ الثَّوَابِ الْمَرْوِيِّ فِيهِ فَلَا يَضُرُّ ثُبُوتُهُ وَلَا عَدَمُ ثُبُوتِهِ وَفِي مِثْلِهِ جَاءَ الْحَدِيثُ الَّذِي رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ : { مَنْ بَلَغَهُ عَنْ اللَّهِ شَيْءٌ فِيهِ فَضْلٌ فَعَمِلَ بِهِ رَجَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْفَضْلِ أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ كَذَلِكَ } .

فَالْحَاصِلُ : أَنَّ هَذَا الْبَابَ يُرْوَى وَيُعْمَلُ بِهِ فِي التَّرْغِيبِ وَالتَّرْهِيبِ لَا فِي الِاسْتِحْبَابِ ثُمَّ اعْتِقَادُ مُوجِبِهِ وَهُوَ مَقَادِيرُ الثَّوَابِ وَالْعِقَابِ يَتَوَقَّفُ عَلَى الدَّلِيلِ الشَّرْعِيِّ .



Ameerul-Mumi'neen Fil-Hadeeth Imam Al-Bukhari (RA) and weak Hadeeth in Fadhail (Virtues)

Fatwa Department Research Committee: Chaired by Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî

Could you explain to me about al-Bukhârî’s book entitled al-Adab al-Mufrad. I have heard there are weak hadîth in it. How can this be, when he is widely regarded as the pre-eminent scholar of hadîth?

Indeed, there are quite a number of weak hadîth in al-Adab al-Mufrad.

We must understand that al-Bukhârî wrote a number of books. Only one of these – his most ambitious work – he gave the title al-Sahîh, meaning “Authentic”. He imposed upon himself the most rigorous conditions of authenticity in writing this book. He would not record in al-Sahîh any hadîth unless it fulfilled those conditions.

To make sure he succeeded in his goal, he aimed far higher in his Sahîh than the minimum accepted conditions of authenticity. This ensured al-Bukhârî that if he made a “mistake” – which is inevitable in any human endeavor – that would mean his recording in his Sahîh a hadîth does not fully meet those extra-rigorous standards – however, it would still be an authentic hadîth nonetheless.

He did not set these strict conditions for the other books he wrote or compiled. He did not even set the condition of the hadîth having to be authentic. He would allow in his other books hadîth that were only good (hasan). He would allow borderline cases. In some instances, he would allow weak hadîth.

This is the case with al-Adab al-Mufrad. It is a book about “adab” – about good manners and virtuous behavior. It is not a book about Islamic beliefs or matters of law.

This is why al-Bukhârî is willing to mention even weak hadîth in al-Adab al-Mufrad. Weak hadîth can be tolerated, because the book is talking about exhortations and virtues. The scholars used to tolerate the narration of moderately weak hadîth regarding virtuous behavior, but they did not tolerate weak hadîth for establishing legal rulings.

Please also know that of the hadîth in al-Adab al-Mufrad that you might hear some critics describing as weak, not all of them are the same. Some of those are borderline cases. Some might be considered good or even authentic by al-Bukhârî or other hadîth scholars. In a book which is not written upon the most rigorous standards of authenticity, there is bound to be a number of hadîth about which specialists will disagree regarding their quality.

Allah knows best.


{jb_dropcap}I{/jb_dropcap}n the present day climate it is often opined that the usage of Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth is forbidden in Islam and there is a genuine move amongst certain circles to purge the Hadeeth collection of Weak (Da'ef) narrations. Although the opinions and Fatawa of certain Scholars (of the past and present) can be presented in support of this position (of discouragement) towards the usage of Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth, nevertheless there exists an overwhelming majority of Islamic Scholars (from Salaf & Khalaf) who not only permitted its usage but their publications contained these (i.e. Weak Narrations) in abundance. Furthermore from the opinions and practises of the Ulama of the past we can also glean that usage of Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth is preferred over Qiyas (deduction/analogy) and in matters where no Authentic Narration exists.

The matter of "weak hadith in Fazail e Amal" is a particular pastime discussion of our era.

In this small endeavour Insha'Allah the opinion of Ulama who have permitted such a usage will be listed along with famous works which have historically contained Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth.

It may be argued by some that shouldn't Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth be avoided anyways? The answer is that if it was good enough for the Masters of Hadeeth, Kibar Ulama and Muhadeetheen to use it and no attempt was made to purge the Hadeeth collection of their existence, then why should it be attempted by us? The actions of Ulama (of the past) will make it clear that it is not a crime to use weak Ahadeeth, provided that rules set forth by the Muhadeetheen are followed.

Finally we present the examples of Imam Bukhari (RA) in "Al Adab Al Mufrad" and Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah's book "Alkalimut-Tayyib" which both contains many weak Ahadeeth the case in point being that Ameerul-Muhadetheen Imam Bukhari (RA) was the Master of Hadeeth and clearly knew the difference between Authentic (Saheeh) and Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth YET he chose to use the later in a book of Fadhail (virtues); Al Adab Al Mufrad is read, taught and practised by the Ummah for generations with the full knowledge that it contains Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth, although attempts have been made to "purge" the book from its Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth but the original manuscript is still widely available and used. Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah's book "Alkalimut-Tayyib" has been revised by Shaykh Al-Albani (RA) as "Saheeh (Authentic) Alkalimut-Tayyib" & "Da'ef (Weak) Alkalimut-Tayyib", nevertheless the original manuscript remains in vogue.

Usage of Weak Hadeeth in Injunctions when nothing Authentic is found (First Case):

Before discussing the subject at hand, it would be prudent to record the opinion of Ulama over the permissibility of usage of Weak Ahadeeth in matters of Ahkaam (Injunctions).

Istadlaal from weak Ahadeeth is permissible (over Qiyas) in injunctions as long as:

{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The weakness is not extreme or severe i.e. liars and fabricators are not present in the chain


{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} There is no other strong evidence present


Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) [80AH -148AH] and the Hanafiyah:

{jb_bluebox}Weak Narration from Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is superior to Qiyas.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Almuhalla Li Ibn Hazm (RA) (3/61)

{jb_bluebox} The Hadeeth concerning laughing aloud during Salah is weak as per the consensus of Muhadeetheen, yet Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) preferred it to Qiyas{/jb_bluebox}

Source: A'alamal Mawqieen (1/31-32)

{jb_bluebox}The Hadeeth stating "Most menstrual cycles are 10 days" is weak as per the consensus of Muhadeetheen, yet Hanafees have preferred it to Qiyas{/jb_bluebox}

Source: A'alamal Mawqieen (1/31-32)

{jb_bluebox}The Hadeeth stating "There is no Meh'r (dowry) less then 10 Dirhams" is weak as per the consensus of Muhadeetheen, yet Hanafees have preferred it to Qiyas{/jb_bluebox}

Source: A'alamal Mawqieen (1/31-32)

{jb_bluebox}Imam Ibn Humaam (RA) states that Istadlaal from weak Ahadeeth is proven as long as the narration is not a fabrication.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Fathul-Qadeer-Babun-Nawafil (2/139)

Imam Malik (RA) [93AH -179AH] and Malikiyah:

{jb_bluebox}Mursal (which is weak according to Jamhoor of Muhadeetheen) of a trustworthy person is valid as proof and as justification for a practice, just like a musnad hadith.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Yusuf b. 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abdul Barr, Tajrid al- Tamhid lima fi l-Muwatta' min al-Asanid (Cairo, 1350), 1:2.

Imam Shaf'ae (RA) [150AH -204AH] and Shaffiyyah:

He has discussed this issue in detail in his al-Risalah; he requires the following conditions to be met before accepting a mursal hadith:

{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} In the narrative, he requires that one of the following conditions be met: that it be reported also as musnad through another isnad; that its contents be reported as mursal through another reliable source with a different isnad; that the meaning be supported by the sayings of some Companions; or that most scholars hold the same opinion as conveyed by the mursal hadith.{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} Regarding the narrator, he requires that one of the following conditions be met: that he be an elder Successor; that if he names the person missing in the isnad elsewhere, he does not usually name an unknown person or someone not suitable for reporting from acceptably; or that he does not contradict a reliable person when he happens to share with him in a narration{/jb_bluebox}

Source: For the discussion in detail, see al-Shafi'i, al-Risalah (ed. Ahmad Shakir, Cairo, 1358/1940, pp. 461-470; English translation: M. Khadduri, 2nd ed., Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 279-284, where the mursal Hadith has been translated as "interrupted tradition").

{jb_bluebox} On the basis of these arguments, al-Shafi'i accepts the Irsal of Sa'id b. al-Musayyab, one of the elder Successors. For example, al- Shafi'i considers the issue of selling meat in exchange for a living animal: he says that Malik told him, reporting from Zaid b. Aslam, who reported from Ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade the selling of meat in exchange for an animal. He then says, "This is our opinion, for the Irsal of Ibn al-Musayyib is fine."{/jb_bluebox}

Source: al-Suyuti, 1:199; Muhammad b. Mustafa al- Ghadamsi, Al-Mursal min al-Hadith (Darif Ltd., London, N.D.), p.71.

{jb_bluebox} Ibnul Qayyim (RA) [691AH 751 AH] has related that Weak Hadeeth is superior to Qiyas according to Imam Shaf'ae (RA){/jb_bluebox}

Source: A'alamal Mawqieen (1/32)

Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) [150AH -204AH] and Hanabila:

{jb_bluebox}He accepts mursal and (other) da'if (weak) ahadith if nothing opposing them is found regarding a particular issue, preferring them to qiyas (analogical deduction).{/jb_bluebox}

Source: A'alamal Mawqieen (1/31)

{jb_bluebox}In the most Authentic text of Hanbali Madhab (Al-Mughni) it states "In the case of Nawafil (optional acts of worship) and Fadhail (Virtues deeds) the condition of Authenticity of Hadeeth is not present.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Al-Mughni (2/88)

Imam Auzai [89AH -157AH]:

{jb_bluebox} Imam Dhahabi (RA) has recorded that Imam Awzai (RA) did Istadlaal from Maqtoo'aat (disconnected) and Maraseel of people of Shaam (Syria){/jb_bluebox}

Source: Sair Aalamun-Nubula (7/114)

Imam Abu Dawud (RA) [202AH -275AH]:

{jb_bluebox} Hafidh Mundhari (RA) writes that Imam Abi Dawud (RA) used to include weak narrations in the chapters where he couldn't find any Authentic Narrations because in his opinion weak Ahadeeth are superior to Qiyas{j/b_bluebox}

Source: Tadreebur Rawi

Imam Ibnul Hazm [384AH -456AH]:

In Almuhalla Ibn Hazm (RA) discussed the matter of Qunoot before Ruku and brings the Hadeeth with the chain of Hasan Ibn Ali (RA) and then writes, Although this Hadeeth is not worthy of Istadlaal, however since we have not found any other Hadeeth from Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) in this regard therefore we adopt it

Source: Almuhalla Li Ibn Hazm (RA) (3/61)

Usage of Weak Hadeeth in Injunctions with caution (Second Case):

This is adopted by almost everyone as explained by Imam Nawawi in Al-Adhkaar while expounding on various forms of acting on Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth.

Imam Nawawi (RA) [631AH -676AH]:

{jb_bluebox}It is permissible to act (with caution) on such matters which are borne out of Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth e.g. Karaha (Offensiveness) in certain matters pertaining to business transactions etc.{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}In the Commentary of the statement (above) Ibn Ailaan (RA) has given the example of Karaha (Offensiveness) in doing Wudhu with Water which has been warmed using the heat of the sun, and this is based upon the Hadeeth of Aisha (RA) which is weak.{/jb_bluebox}

Usage of Weak Hadeeth clarifying ambiguous text (Third Case):

If a verse of the Qur'aan or Authentic narration can have multiple meanings and a weak Narration gives credence to one of the meanings then the Ulama have permitted the usage of Weak (Da'ef) Ahadeeth in clarifying it.

Usage of Weak Hadeeth in Encouragement towards Good and Discouragement from Evil (Al-Targheeb Wa Al-Tarheeb) (Fourth Case):

{jb_bluebox}It is the Consensus of the Ulema that weak hadiths can be narrated and put into practice in Islam according to according to al-Bayhaqî, Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawî, Ibn Taymiyya, al-Qârî, and 'Alawî ibn 'Abbâs al-Mâlikî in his manual al-Manhal al-Lat.îf fî Ma'rifat al-H.adîth, provided certain conditions are met.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Al-Bayhaqî, Dalâ'il al-Nubuwwa (1:33-34); Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhîd (1:127); al-Nawawî, al-Majmû' (5:63), Irshâd T.ullâb al-H.aqâ'iq (p. 107-108), Sharh. S.ah.îh. Muslim (introduction), and al-Adhkâr (introduction p. 5) cf. Ibn 'Allân, al-Futûh.ât al-Rabbâniyya (1:84); Ibn Taymiyya, Sharh. al-'Umda (1:171), Majmû' al-Fatâwâ (18:26, 18:65-66), and Miswaddat âl Taymiyya (p. 233, 246, 461); al-Qârî, Sharh. al-Shifâ' (2:91) and Mirqât al-Mafâtîh. (2:381); 'Itr, Manhaj al-Naqd (p. 291-296) and Us.ûl al-Jarh. wal-Ta'dîl (p. 140-143)

Abdullah Ibn Abi Mubarak (RA) [118AH -181AH]:

{jb_bluebox}One may narrate from [a weak narrator] to a certain extent or those hadiths pertaining to good conduct (adab), admonition (maw'iza), and simple living (zuhd)."{/jb_bluebox}

Narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim in Muqaddimat al-Jarh. wal-Ta'dil (2:30) and cited by Ibn Rajab in Sharh. 'Ilal al-Tirmidhi (1:73).

Imam Bukhari (RA) [194AH -256AH]:

{jb_bluebox}Imam Bukhari (RA) has compiled Adab Al-Mufrad which contains many weak Narrations to the point where some scholars have declared some narrations as fabricated; some of the chapters in the book contain no Authentic narrations at all.{/jb_bluebox}

Allamah Shaykh Abdul-Fattah Abu-Ghuddah has discussed the chains of transmissions of Adab Al-Mufrad in detail in his commentary "Fadhlullah As-Samad"

{jb_bluebox}Even in Saheeh Bukhari while discussing the Hadeeth, "Be in this world as if you were a stranger or a traveler." Hafidh Ibnul Hajr Asqalani (RA) comments in Fathal Bari, "Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Rahman Tafawi is Munfarid in the narration of this Hadeeth, perhaps Imam Bukhari (RA) has shown leniency in the matter because this Hadeeth is about Al-Targheeb Wa Al-Tarheeb.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Fathul-Bari Kitabur-Raqaiq

The full Hadeeth is as follows:

{jb_brownbox}Narrated Mujahid (RA) : 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (RA) said, "Allah's Apostle (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) took hold of my shoulder and said, 'Be in this world as if you were a stranger or a traveler."{/jb_brownbox}

Imam Muslim (RA) [206AH -261AH]:

{jb_bluebox}The correct position of Imâm Muslim in the introduction to his Sahîh whih is that he forbade the use of forgers and other abandoned narrators, not of truthful weak ones, in conformity with the position of Ahmad and the rest of the Salaf.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Cf. al-Nawawî, Sharh. S.ah.îh. Muslim (introduction), Ibn al-Qayyim, I'lâm al-Muwaqqi'în (1:31), al-Sakhâwî, al-Qawl al-Badî' (p. 474), and 'Itr, notes on Ibn Rajab's Sharh. 'Ilal al-Tirmidhî (1:75-76).

{jb_bluebox}Muslim also says: "The sound reports from the trustworthy (thiqât) narrators and those whose reliability is convincing are more than that we should be forced to transmit reports from those who are not trustworthy and whose reliability is not convincing." The difference is clear between saying we are not forced to use weak narrators and saying that one absolutely cannot transmit from them.{/jb_bluebox}

{jb_bluebox}A proof of this is his use of the weak narration from 'Â'isha: "Treat people according to their ranks" and the fact that his strictness in narrators drops a notch or two in the h.adîths of raqâ'iq or fad.â'il al-a'mâl in the S.ah.îh., as in the case of Shaddâd ibn Sa'îd Abû T.alhâ al-Râsibî or al-Walîd ibn Abî Walîd.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: The claim of a handful of authors such as al-Qâsimî in Qawâ'id al-Tah.dîth (p. 94) or 'Ajâj al-Khat.îb in Us.ûl al-H.adîth (p. 231) that Ibn al-'Arabî and Ibn Ma'în were opposed to the use of weak h.adîths in absolute terms, stems from good faith in Ibn Sayyid al-Nâs, al-'Irâqî, al-Sakhâwî, and al-Suyût.î's claims to that effect.

Imam Ibn Arabi (RA):

{jb_bluebox}The correct position of Ibn al-'Arabî is as he states himself regarding a certain weak h.adîth: "Its chain is unknown, but it is preferable to put it into practice..."{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Ibn al-'Arabî, 'Ârid.at al-Ah.wadhî (10:205) cf. Fath. al-Bârî (10:606) as cited by Muh.ammad 'Awwâma in his marginalia on al-Qawl al-Badî' (p. 472).

Imam Yahya Ibn Ma'een (RA):

{jb_bluebox}Ibn Sayyidun-Naas (RA) has recorded the opinion of Imam Yayha Ibn Maeen (RA) about the usage of Weak Hadeeth{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Taweyounal-Athar

{jb_bluebox} Hafidh Sakhawi (RA) has mentioned those Imam Yahya Ibn Ma'een amongst those who did hold the lenient position of usage of weak Ahadeeth in Fadhail{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Fathul-Magheeth

Imam Abu Shama Maqdisi (RA):

{jb_bluebox}Shaykh Tahir Aljazairi (RA) has recorded the comments of Imam Abu Shama Maqdisi (RA) from his book "AlBaes Ala Inkaar Al-Bida Wal Hawadis" in which with reference to a Majlis of Hafidh Ibn Asakar Dimashqi (RA) three Ahadeeth about Rajab are mentioned and then Imam Abu Shama Maqdisi (RA) says, "I wish Hafidh Ibn Asakar Dimashqi (RA) had not mentioned these Ahadeeth as it is tantamount to giving credence to Munkar Ahadeeth but he has adopted the path of a group of Muhadetheen who are lenient when it comes to Ahadeeth pertaining to Fadhail{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Tawjeeun-Nadhar

Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (RA) [661AH -728AH]:

Al-Haafidth Ibn Hajar Al-'Asqalani, sometimes referred to as the Ameer Al-Muslimeen in Al-Hadeeth, said: "There are three conditions that must be fulfilled in order to use the weak Hadeeth: -

{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} It is well accepted that the weakness should only be slight. This will help to exclude hadeeths reported by liars or accused reporters who are known to commit big mistakes.{/jb_bluebox}


{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The weak Hadeeth should be used under already well-established principles and should not bring in ideas of its own.{/jb_bluebox}


{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}3{/jb_bluedisc}When a weak Hadeeth is used (after it fulfills the above two conditions), it should not be believed to be said by the Messenger of Allah (Sallao Alaihe Wassallam), lest we refer to him (Sallao Alaihe Wassallam) with that which he did not say.{/jb_bluebox}

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (RA) [661AH -728AH]:

Ibn Taymiyya said in his book "al-qaida al-jaleela fit- tawwasuli wal-waseela", with commentary of Dr. Rabi'a bin Hadi 'Umayr al-Mudkhali, professor in the Islamic University of Madinah al-Munawwara, Page 162, para 478:

{jb_bluebox}"But Ahmad ibn Hanbal and other scholars permitted the narration [of hadith] regarding the virtues of good what is not established [as authentic] as long as it is not known that it is a lie." (laakinna Ahmad ibn Hanbal wa ghayruh min al-'ulama jawwazu an yurwa fee fada'il al-'aamal maa lam yu'lam annahu thaabit idha lam yu'lam annahu kadhib.){/jb_bluebox}

Shaykhul Islam's book "Alkalimut-Tayyib" contains many weak Ahadeeth which Al-Albani (RA) has himself divided into "Saheeh Alkalimut-Tayyib" & "Da'ef Alkalimut-Tayyib" proving that it contains weak Ahadeeth in the first place!

Imam Nawawi (RA) [631AH -636AH]:

Nawawî and al-'Irâqî's sole conditions (for using Weak Hadeeth) were that:

{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}1{/jb_bluedisc} The Hadith be related to good deeds (fad.â'il al-a'mâl) without bearing on legal rulings and doctrine and{/jb_bluebox}


{jb_bluebox}{jb_bluedisc}2{/jb_bluedisc} The Hadith not be forged.{/jb_bluebox}

Source: Al-Bayhaqî, Dalâ'il al-Nubuwwa (1:33-34); Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhîd (1:127); al-Nawawî, al-Majmû' (5:63), Irshâd T.ullâb al-H.aqâ'iq (p. 107-108), Sharh. S.ah.îh. Muslim (introduction), and al-Adhkâr (introduction p. 5) cf. Ibn 'Allân, al-Futûh.ât al-Rabbâniyya (1:84); Ibn Taymiyya, Sharh. al-'Umda (1:171), Majmû' al-Fatâwâ (18:26, 18:65-66), and Miswaddat âl Taymiyya (p. 233, 246, 461); al-Qârî, Sharh. al-Shifâ' (2:91) and Mirqât al-Mafâtîh. (2:381); 'Itr, Manhaj al-Naqd (p. 291-296) and Us.ûl al-Jarh. wal-Ta'dîl (p. 140-143)

Imam Shawkani (RA):

{jb_bluebox}Although Imam Shawkani (RA)'s statement Alfawaidul Majmoowa categorically prohibits acting on a weak Hadeeth YET in Nailul-Awtaar we find his statement, "Although Ahadeeth about excessive Nawafil during Maghrib and Esha are weak yet collectively they are strong particularly for Fadhail (of Aamaal){/jb_bluebox}

Source: Nailul-Awtaar (3/60)

{jb_bluebox}Imam Shawkani (RA)'s book Tuhaftuz-Zakireen is filled with weak Ahadeeth{/jb_bluebox}

Imam Jawzi (RA):

{jb_bluebox}Imam Jawzi (RA)'s books such as "Dhummul Hawwa", "Talbees Iblees", Rousul Qawareer" and many other contain weak Ahadeeth and Imam Ibn Taymiyyah has collectively said this about Ibn Asakar (RA), Ibn Jawzi (RA), Abu Naeem (RA) & Khateeb (RA){/jb_bluebox}

Imam Mundhari (RA):

{jb_bluebox}In his book At-Targheeb Wa Al-Tarheeb many weak Ahadeeth are mentioned and Hafidh started them with "Rowi" indicating their weakness and his knowledge of their weakness, yet he chooses to include them in the book.{/jb_bluebox}