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Islamic date in Europe

Friday 3rd of February 2023

12 Rajab 1444


I swear by the dawn, [89:1] and by the Ten Nights, [89:2].

10 Days of Zhul-Hijjah and their Injunctions

In line with a series of questions and objections received on the rulings of Hanafi Madhab, the format of this article has been slightly modified to address the objections which were raised in an email. We would like to specifically acknowledge the time and effort of (Mufti) Mohammed Ashfaq (Bradford) who provided valuable assistance in providing Ahadeeth for this article. (Qari) Muhammad Shoyaib Nurgat (HA) has done a review of the article in general.

Please inform us of any typos or errors which remain and we will make Dua for you.

Jazakallahu Khayran

(Qari) Muhammad Shoyaib Nurgat (HA)

(Mufti) Mohammed Ashfaq (HA)


Allah (SWT) takes an Oath by the Ten Nights of Dhul-Hijjah:

وَٱلۡفَجۡرِ - وَلَيَالٍ عَشۡرٍ۬ 

I swear by the dawn, [89:1] and by the Ten Nights, [89:2]

قَالَهُ عَلِيّ وَابْن عَبَّاس وَعِكْرِمَة وَمُجَاهِد وَالسُّدِّيّ وَعَنْ مَسْرُوق وَمُحَمَّد بْن كَعْب الْمُرَاد بِهِ فَجْر يَوْم النَّحْر خَاصَّة

Some commentators, like Mujahid and 'Ikramah, refer this to the dawn of 'the Day of Sacrifice' on the tenth of Dhul Hijjah. A narration from Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas (RA) concurs with this view. [Maariful Qur'aan & Tafseer Ibn Katheer]

وَاللَّيَالِي الْعَشْر الْمُرَاد بِهَا عَشْر ذِي الْحِجَّة كَمَا قَالَهُ اِبْن عَبَّاس وَابْن الزُّبَيْر وَمُجَاهِد وَغَيْر وَاحِد مِنْ السَّلَف وَالْخَلَف

According Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas , Qatadah, Mujahid, Suddi, Dahhak, Kalbi and other leading commentators, the 'ten nights' refers to the [first] ten nights of Dhul Hijjah. [Maariful Qur'aan & Tafseer Ibn Katheer]

Should Dhul-Hijjah start with the Moonsighting of Saudi Arabia?

There is no evidence to tie the start of Dhul-Hijjah to the Moonsighting of Makah. Each location should sight the Moon (locally) and begin the blessed month of Dhul-Hijjah according to their own local sighting. It is not an obligation or even a recommendation to start the month with sighting in Makkah or to tie it with the dates of Hajj.

Rasul-ullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) declares the good deeds of 10 days to be most Superior:

‏حدثنا ‏ ‏هناد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو معاوية ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الأعمش ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏مسلم هو البطين وهو ابن أبي عمران ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سعيد بن جبير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ما من أيام العمل الصالح فيهن أحب إلى الله من هذه الأيام العشر فقالوا يا رسول الله ولا الجهاد في سبيل الله فقال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ولا الجهاد في سبيل الله إلا رجل خرج بنفسه وماله فلم يرجع من ذلك بشيء ‏  ‏وفي ‏ ‏الباب ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عمر ‏ ‏وأبي هريرة ‏ ‏وعبد الله بن عمرو ‏ ‏وجابر ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏حديث ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏حديث حسن صحيح غريب

Narrated Ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja)." Then some companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Not even Jihad?" He replied, "Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and does not return with any of those things." [Tirmidhi]

Rasul-ullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) used to fast all 9 days including Arafah:

‏حدثنا ‏ ‏مسدد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو عوانة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الحر بن الصباح ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏هنيدة بن خالد ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏امرأته ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏بعض أزواج النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قالت ‏كان رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏يصوم تسع ذي الحجة ويوم عاشوراء وثلاثة أيام من كل شهر

One of the wives of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: "Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) used to fast the [first] nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of 'Ashurah, and three days of each month." [Abu Dawud].

Fasting on Arafah day is an expiation for sins committed the year before and the year after:

‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أحمد بن عبدة ‏ ‏أنبأنا ‏ ‏حماد بن زيد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏غيلان بن جرير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبد الله بن معبد الزماني ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي قتادة ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏صيام يوم ‏ ‏عرفة ‏ ‏إني ‏ ‏أحتسب ‏ ‏على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله والتي بعده

Abu Qatadah (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said that the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: "Fasting on the day of 'Arafah is an expiation (of sins) for two years, the year preceding it and the year following it. [Ibn Majah]

Sacrificing an animal is an established Sunnah on Eid day:

حدثنا ‏ ‏حجاج ‏ ‏قال حدثنا ‏ ‏شعبة ‏ ‏قال أخبرني ‏ ‏زبيد ‏ ‏قال سمعت ‏ ‏الشعبي ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏البراء ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏سمعت النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏يخطب فقال ‏ ‏إن أول ما نبدأ من يومنا هذا أن نصلي ثم نرجع فننحر فمن فعل فقد أصاب سنتنا

Narrated Al-Bara' bin 'Azib (RA) that I heard the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) say when he gave a sermon (on the day of Idal-Adha), "The first thing we will do on this day of ours, is to offer the ('Id) prayer and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. Whoever does so, he acted according to our Sunna (tradition). [Bukhari]

Eating, drinking, enjoying and reciting Ayamul-Tashreeq: 11th, 12th & 13th of Dhul-Hijjah:

وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

[2:203] Recite the name of Allah during the given number of days. Then whoever is early in leaving after two days, there is no sin on him, and whoever leaves later, there is no sin on him, if he is God-fearing. Fear Allah and be sure that you are going to be gathered before Him.

قَالَ اِبْن عَبَّاس : الْأَيَّام الْمَعْدُودَات أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق وَالْأَيَّام الْمَعْلُومَات أَيَّام الْعَشْر . وَقَالَ عِكْرِمَة " وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّه فِي أَيَّام مَعْدُودَات " يَعْنِي التَّكْبِير فِي أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق بَعْد الصَّلَوَات الْمَكْتُوبَات : اللَّه أَكْبَر اللَّه أَكْبَر . وَقَالَ الْإِمَام أَحْمَد : حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيع حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْن عَلِيّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ : سَمِعْت عُقْبَة بْن عَامِر قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُول اللَّه - صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - " يَوْم عَرَفَة وَيَوْم النَّحْر وَأَيَّام التَّشْرِيق عِيدُنَا أَهْل الْإِسْلَام وَهِيَ أَيَّام أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ

Ibn Abbas (RA) said, "The given number of days are the Ayamul-Tashreeq And the known days are the ten. Ikramah (RA) said, "Remember Allah (SWT) in the given number of days i.e. recite the Takbeer (Allahu Akbarm Allahu Akbar) in Ayamul-Tashreeq after the Fardh (obligatory) Prayers). Uqbah Ibn Amir (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said that the day of Arafah, the day of Sacrifice and the Ayanul-Tashreeq are our days (for people of Islam) and eat and drink in these days. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer]

فَقَالَ عُمَر بْن الْخَطَّاب وَعَلِيّ بْن أَبِي طَالِب وَابْن عَبَّاس : ( يُكَبِّر مِنْ صَلَاة الصُّبْح يَوْم عَرَفَة إِلَى الْعَصْر مِنْ آخِر أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق

Umar Ibn Khattab (RA), Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) & Ibn Abbas (RA) said, "Recite the Takbeer from the Fajar of the day of Arafah until the Asar of the last day of Ayamul-Tashreeq (13th of Dhul-Hijjah). [Tafseer of Imam Qurtubi]

وَفِي الْمُخْتَصَر عَنْ مَالِك : اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ , لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ , وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ , اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ

And in Summary it is narrated from Imam Malik (RA) [about the Takbeer] Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La Ilaha Illallah, Wallahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Wallilahil Hamd

Takbeer Tashreeq is the recitation of Allahu akbar, La ilaha illa hu Wallahu akbar, Allahu akbar wa lillahil hamd after every fardh salaah commencing from the Fajr of the 9th of Dhul Hijah until after Asr of the 13th of Dhul Hijjah. (Shami vol. 1 pg. 406)

When Ibrahim (AS) began moving the knife on his beloved son, Ismaeel (AS), the angels sent by Allah with a ram exclaimed. Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest). Ibrahim (AS) heard the voice of the angels and replied, La illah illa Allahu Wallahu akbar (There is no god besides Allah, and Allah is the greatest).

His son Ismaeel (AS) heard this conversation and understood that Allah had relieved him from this great rial, thus he replied, Allahu Akbar Walillahil hamd (Allah is the greatest, and to Allah belongs all praise)(Ibid).

تکبیر تشریق کے مسائل

What is the injunction about clipping nails or trimming any hair or trim if one is preparing to make a sacrifice for Eid?

There are two opinions about the matter. According to Imam Abu Haneefa (RA) and earlier scholars of the Hanafi Madhab it is permissible to clip nails or trim hair and there are no restrictions. The second opinion is of later scholars (of the Madhab) and it has become popular amongst the masses. This (second) opinion states that it is Mustahab (recommended) to refrain from clipping nails and trimming hair if a person is intending to perform Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice). However it must be noted that scholars who advocate restriction, also state that if the nails become too long and the hair (particularly from the private areas)  become long, they should be trimmed and clipped.

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَفْلَحُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ فَتَلْتُ قَلاَئِدَ هَدْىِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ أَشْعَرَهَا وَقَلَّدَهَا ـ أَوْ قَلَّدْتُهَا ـ ثُمَّ بَعَثَ بِهَا إِلَى الْبَيْتِ، وَأَقَامَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ، فَمَا حَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ شَىْءٌ كَانَ لَهُ حِلٌّ‏.‏

Narrated `Aisha (RA): I twisted the garlands for the animals intended to be sacrificied of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and then he marked and garlanded them (or I garlanded them) and then made them proceed to the Ka`ba but he remained in Medina and no permissible thing was regarded as illegal for him then. [Bukhari]

‏وَحَدَّثَنِي حَجَّاجُ بْنُ الشَّاعِرِ حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ كَثِيرٍ الْعَنْبَرِيُّ أَبُو غَسَّانَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ هِلَالَ ذِي الْحِجَّةِ وَأَرَادَ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يُضَحِّيَ فَلْيُمْسِكْ عَنْ شَعْرِهِ وَأَظْفَارِهِ

Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "When anyone of you sights the moon of Dhul-Hijjah and anyone of you intends to make sacrifice then let him not touch his hair and his nail' [Reported by Muslim]

Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) Summary:

Question: Is there any evidence of making Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) in the Qur'aan?


فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنۡحَرۡ

[108:2] So, offer Salah (prayer) to your Lord, and sacrifice.

قُلۡ إِنَّ صَلَاتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحۡيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

[6:162] Say, My prayer, my offering, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.

وَلِڪُلِّ أُمَّةٍ۬ جَعَلۡنَا مَنسَكً۬ا لِّيَذۡكُرُواْ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّنۢ بَهِيمَةِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ‌ۗ فَإِلَـٰهُكُمۡ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ فَلَهُ ۥۤ أَسۡلِمُواْ‌ۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلۡمُخۡبِتِينَ

[22:34] For every Ummah (religious community) We prescribed the act of sacrifice, so that they recite Allah‘s name over the provision He gave them from the cattle. So, your God is One God. Therefore, to Him alone you must submit. And give good news to those who turn to Him with humbleness

Question: Did Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) every year?


وعن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال : « أقام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم بالمدينة عشر سنين يضحي » . رواه أحمد

Abdullah Ibn Umar (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) stayed in Madeenah for ten years, offering sacrifice (every year on Eid).” [Ahmad]

Question: Did Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) advise his companions to offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice)?


وعن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم قال: «من ذبح بعد الصلاة فقد تم نسكه وأصاب سنة المسلمين » . رواه البخاري

al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: “Whoever offers a sacrifice after the prayer has completed his rituals (of Eid) and has followed the way of the Muslims.” [Bukhari]

وعن عقبة بن عامر رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم قسم بين أصحابه ضحايا فصارت لعقبة جذعة فقال : يا رسول الله صارت لي جذعة فقال : « ضح بها » رواه البخاري

It was narrated from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) shared out sacrificial animals amongst his companions, and ‘Uqbah got a sheep that was six months old. He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I got a sheep that is six months old.” He said, “Offer it as a sacrifice.” [Bukhari]

Question: Why Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) advise should offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice)?

It should be noted that the sacrificed (Nah'r) during Eidul-Adha is one of the most emphasised and virtous acts and beloved to Allah (SWT).

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَمْرٍو، مُسْلِمُ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ الْحَذَّاءُ الْمَدَنِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ نَافِعٍ الصَّائِغُ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الْمُثَنَّى، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا عَمِلَ آدَمِيٌّ مِنْ عَمَلٍ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ أَحَبَّ إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ إِهْرَاقِ الدَّمِ إِنَّهَا لَتَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بِقُرُونِهَا وَأَشْعَارِهَا وَأَظْلاَفِهَا وَإِنَّ الدَّمَ لَيَقَعُ مِنَ اللَّهِ بِمَكَانٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقَعَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ فَطِيبُوا بِهَا نَفْسًا ‏"

Sayyida 'Aishah (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said: "A human does no action from the actions on the day of Nahr more beloved to Allah then spilling blood. On the Day of judgement, it will appear with its horns, and hair, and hooves, and indeed the blood will be accepted by Allah from where it is received before it even falls upon earth, so let your heart delight in it." [Tirmidhi]

Question: Who Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) advise should offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice)?

The act of sacrifice is dependent on financial means, this is not only common sense but also narrated in Hadeeth:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ الله عَنْهُ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: “مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ سَعَةٌ وَلَمْ يُضَحِّ فَلَا يَقْرَبَنَّ مُصَلَّانَا

Sayyidina Abu Hurairah (RA) that the Messenger of Allah(Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, “Whoever has the capacity to offer a sacrifice (i.e. slaughter an animal as a sacrifice) and he doesn’t do so should not come close to our place of prayer (i.e. the place of Eid prayer, meaning shouldn’t come close to the Eid salah).” [Al-Hakim]

Question: Did Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) offer more then one Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice)?


عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال : « ضحى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم بكبشين أملحين ذبحهما بيده وسمى وكبر، وضع رجله على صفاحهما

Sayydina Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) sacrificed two white rams speckled with black. He slaughtered them with his own hand, said ‘Allaahu akbar’ and put his foot on their necks.”[Bukhari]

Question: Should there be multiple intended Udhiyah (sacrifices) within the same animal or should a single Udhiyah (sacrifice) be intended to be given on behalf of a single person, when it is obligatory? What about when it is not obligatory but intended to gain extra rewards?

When a sacrifice is obligatory, a single Udhiyah (sacrifice) is sufficient for the single person. It is permissible to make multiple intentions in a single Udhiyah (sacrifice) for gaining (extra) reward when these Udhiyah (sacrifices) are not primary. This is clearly indicative from the wordings of these narrations and scholars of Hadeeth have deduced that these narrations are regarding the circumstances when it is intended to send extra reward to household or family members.

عائشة رضي الله عنها أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم أمر بكبشٍ أقرن يطأ في سواد ، ويبرك في سواد ، وينظر في سواد فأُتي به ليضحي به فقال لها : " يا عائشة هلمي المدية ( أي أعطيني السكين ) ففعلت ثم أخذها وأخذ الكبش فأضجعه ثم ذبحه ( أي أخذ يستعد لذبحه ) ثم قال : بسم الله ، اللهم تقبل من محمد ، وآل محمد ، ومن أمة محمد ثم ضحى به 

Aisha (RA) who said that the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) ordered that a ram with black legs, black belly and black (circles) round the eyes should be brought to him, so that he could sacrifice it. He said to ‘Aisha (RA): “Give me the knife,” and she did that. He took it, then he took the ram, placed it on the ground and then slaughtered it (i.e., prepared to slaughter it), saying: “In the name of Allaah, O Allaah, accept (this sacrifice) on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the ummah of Muhammad.” Then he sacrificed it. [Muslim]

وعن أبي أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه قال : " كان الرجل في عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم يضحي بالشاة عنه وعن أهل بيته، فيأكلون ويطعمون 

Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari (RA) said: “At the time of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and his household, and they would eat some and give some to others.” [Tirmidhi]

Question: Is it permissable to offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) in another country or appoint someone else to do it on your behalf?

This was done by Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) when he appointed Sayyidina Ali (RA) to sacrifice on his behalf

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، جَمِيعًا عَنْ حَاتِمٍ، - قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا حَاتِمُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْمَدَنِيُّ، - عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ دَخَلْنَا عَلَى جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَسَأَلَ عَنِ الْقَوْمِ، حَتَّى انْتَهَى إِلَىَّ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، ‏.‏ فَأَهْوَى بِيَدِهِ إِلَى رَأْسِي فَنَزَعَ زِرِّي الأَعْلَى ثُمَّ نَزَعَ زِرِّي الأَسْفَلَ ثُمَّ وَضَعَ كَفَّهُ بَيْنَ ثَدْيَىَّ وَأَنَا يَوْمَئِذٍ غُلاَمٌ شَابٌّ فَقَالَ مَرْحَبًا بِكَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي سَلْ عَمَّا شِئْتَ ‏.‏ فَسَأَلْتُهُ وَهُوَ أَعْمَى وَحَضَرَ وَقْتُ الصَّلاَةِ فَقَامَ فِي نِسَاجَةٍ مُلْتَحِفًا بِهَا كُلَّمَا وَضَعَهَا عَلَى مَنْكِبِهِ رَجَعَ طَرَفَاهَا إِلَيْهِ مِنْ صِغَرِهَا وَرِدَاؤُهُ إِلَى جَنْبِهِ عَلَى الْمِشْجَبِ فَصَلَّى بِنَا فَقُلْتُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ حَجَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَ بِيَدِهِ فَعَقَدَ تِسْعًا فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَكَثَ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ لَمْ يَحُجَّ ثُمَّ أَذَّنَ فِي النَّاسِ فِي الْعَاشِرَةِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَاجٌّ فَقَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ بَشَرٌ كَثِيرٌ كُلُّهُمْ يَلْتَمِسُ أَنْ يَأْتَمَّ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَيَعْمَلَ مِثْلَ عَمَلِهِ فَخَرَجْنَا مَعَهُ حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا ذَا الْحُلَيْفَةِ فَوَلَدَتْ أَسْمَاءُ بِنْتُ عُمَيْسٍ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَأَرْسَلَتْ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ قَالَ ‏"‏ اغْتَسِلِي وَاسْتَثْفِرِي بِثَوْبٍ وَأَحْرِمِي ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي الْمَسْجِدِ ثُمَّ رَكِبَ الْقَصْوَاءَ حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَوَتْ بِهِ نَاقَتُهُ عَلَى الْبَيْدَاءِ نَظَرْتُ إِلَى مَدِّ بَصَرِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنْ رَاكِبٍ وَمَاشٍ وَعَنْ يَمِينِهِ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ وَعَنْ يَسَارِهِ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِنَا وَعَلَيْهِ يَنْزِلُ الْقُرْآنُ وَهُوَ يَعْرِفُ تَأْوِيلَهُ وَمَا عَمِلَ بِهِ مِنْ شَىْءٍ عَمِلْنَا بِهِ فَأَهَلَّ بِالتَّوْحِيدِ ‏"‏ لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ لَبَّيْكَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَأَهَلَّ النَّاسُ بِهَذَا الَّذِي يُهِلُّونَ بِهِ فَلَمْ يَرُدَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا مِنْهُ وَلَزِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم تَلْبِيَتَهُ قَالَ جَابِرٌ - رضى الله عنه - لَسْنَا نَنْوِي إِلاَّ الْحَجَّ لَسْنَا نَعْرِفُ الْعُمْرَةَ حَتَّى إِذَا أَتَيْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَعَهُ اسْتَلَمَ الرُّكْنَ فَرَمَلَ ثَلاَثًا وَمَشَى أَرْبَعًا ثُمَّ نَفَذَ إِلَى مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ - عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ - فَقَرَأَ ‏{‏ وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى‏}‏ فَجَعَلَ الْمَقَامَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْبَيْتِ فَكَانَ أَبِي يَقُولُ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُهُ ذَكَرَهُ إِلاَّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَقْرَأُ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ ‏{‏ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‏}‏ وَ ‏{‏ قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ‏}‏ ثُمَّ رَجَعَ إِلَى الرُّكْنِ فَاسْتَلَمَهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْبَابِ إِلَى الصَّفَا فَلَمَّا دَنَا مِنَ الصَّفَا قَرَأَ ‏{‏ إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ‏}‏ ‏"‏ أَبْدَأُ بِمَا بَدَأَ اللَّهُ بِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَبَدَأَ بِالصَّفَا فَرَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى رَأَى الْبَيْتَ فَاسْتَقْبَلَ الْقِبْلَةَ فَوَحَّدَ اللَّهَ وَكَبَّرَهُ وَقَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كَلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ أَنْجَزَ وَعْدَهُ وَنَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ وَهَزَمَ الأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَعَا بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ مِثْلَ هَذَا ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ ثُمَّ نَزَلَ إِلَى الْمَرْوَةِ حَتَّى إِذَا انْصَبَّتْ قَدَمَاهُ فِي بَطْنِ الْوَادِي سَعَى حَتَّى إِذَا صَعِدَتَا مَشَى حَتَّى أَتَى الْمَرْوَةَ فَفَعَلَ عَلَى الْمَرْوَةِ كَمَا فَعَلَ عَلَى الصَّفَا حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ آخِرُ طَوَافِهِ عَلَى الْمَرْوَةِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ لَوْ أَنِّي اسْتَقْبَلْتُ مِنْ أَمْرِي مَا اسْتَدْبَرْتُ لَمْ أَسُقِ الْهَدْىَ وَجَعَلْتُهَا عُمْرَةً فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ هَدْىٌ فَلْيَحِلَّ وَلْيَجْعَلْهَا عُمْرَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ سُرَاقَةُ بْنُ مَالِكِ بْنِ جُعْشُمٍ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَلِعَامِنَا هَذَا أَمْ لأَبَدٍ فَشَبَّكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَصَابِعَهُ وَاحِدَةً فِي الأُخْرَى وَقَالَ ‏"‏ دَخَلَتِ الْعُمْرَةُ فِي الْحَجِّ - مَرَّتَيْنِ - لاَ بَلْ لأَبَدٍ أَبَدٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَدِمَ عَلِيٌّ مِنَ الْيَمَنِ بِبُدْنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَوَجَدَ فَاطِمَةَ - رضى الله عنها - مِمَّنْ حَلَّ وَلَبِسَتْ ثِيَابًا صَبِيغًا وَاكْتَحَلَتْ فَأَنْكَرَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهَا فَقَالَتْ إِنَّ أَبِي أَمَرَنِي بِهَذَا ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَانَ عَلِيٌّ يَقُولُ بِالْعِرَاقِ فَذَهَبْتُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُحَرِّشًا عَلَى فَاطِمَةَ لِلَّذِي صَنَعَتْ مُسْتَفْتِيًا لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيمَا ذَكَرَتْ عَنْهُ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ أَنِّي أَنْكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهَا فَقَالَ ‏"‏ صَدَقَتْ صَدَقَتْ مَاذَا قُلْتَ حِينَ فَرَضْتَ الْحَجَّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْتُ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أُهِلُّ بِمَا أَهَلَّ بِهِ رَسُولُكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَإِنَّ مَعِيَ الْهَدْىَ فَلاَ تَحِلُّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَانَ جَمَاعَةُ الْهَدْىِ الَّذِي قَدِمَ بِهِ عَلِيٌّ مِنَ الْيَمَنِ وَالَّذِي أَتَى بِهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِائَةً - قَالَ - فَحَلَّ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ وَقَصَّرُوا إِلاَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَمَنْ كَانَ مَعَهُ هَدْىٌ فَلَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ التَّرْوِيَةِ تَوَجَّهُوا إِلَى مِنًى فَأَهَلُّوا بِالْحَجِّ وَرَكِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَصَلَّى بِهَا الظُّهْرَ وَالْعَصْرَ وَالْمَغْرِبَ وَالْعِشَاءَ وَالْفَجْرَ ثُمَّ مَكَثَ قَلِيلاً حَتَّى طَلَعَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَأَمَرَ بِقُبَّةٍ مِنْ شَعَرٍ تُضْرَبُ لَهُ بِنَمِرَةَ فَسَارَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلاَ تَشُكُّ قُرَيْشٌ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُ وَاقِفٌ عِنْدَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَا كَانَتْ قُرَيْشٌ تَصْنَعُ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَجَازَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَتَّى أَتَى عَرَفَةَ فَوَجَدَ الْقُبَّةَ قَدْ ضُرِبَتْ لَهُ بِنَمِرَةَ فَنَزَلَ بِهَا حَتَّى إِذَا زَاغَتِ الشَّمْسُ أَمَرَ بِالْقَصْوَاءِ فَرُحِلَتْ لَهُ فَأَتَى بَطْنَ الْوَادِي فَخَطَبَ النَّاسَ وَقَالَ ‏"‏ إِنَّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ حَرَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ كَحُرْمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا فِي شَهْرِكُمْ هَذَا فِي بَلَدِكُمْ هَذَا أَلاَ كُلُّ شَىْءٍ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ تَحْتَ قَدَمَىَّ مَوْضُوعٌ وَدِمَاءُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ مَوْضُوعَةٌ وَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ دَمٍ أَضَعُ مِنْ دِمَائِنَا دَمُ ابْنِ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ كَانَ مُسْتَرْضِعًا فِي بَنِي سَعْدٍ فَقَتَلَتْهُ هُذَيْلٌ وَرِبَا الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ مَوْضُوعٌ وَأَوَّلُ رِبًا أَضَعُ رِبَانَا رِبَا عَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فَإِنَّهُ مَوْضُوعٌ كُلُّهُ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ فِي النِّسَاءِ فَإِنَّكُمْ أَخَذْتُمُوهُنَّ بِأَمَانِ اللَّهِ وَاسْتَحْلَلْتُمْ فُرُوجَهُنَّ بِكَلِمَةِ اللَّهِ وَلَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ أَنْ لاَ يُوطِئْنَ فُرُشَكُمْ أَحَدًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ ‏.‏ فَإِنْ فَعَلْنَ ذَلِكَ فَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ضَرْبًا غَيْرَ مُبَرِّحٍ وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَقَدْ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ مَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدَهُ إِنِ اعْتَصَمْتُمْ بِهِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ وَأَنْتُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ عَنِّي فَمَا أَنْتُمْ قَائِلُونَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتَ وَأَدَّيْتَ وَنَصَحْتَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ بِإِصْبَعِهِ السَّبَّابَةِ يَرْفَعُهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَيَنْكُتُهَا إِلَى النَّاسِ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدِ اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ ثُمَّ أَذَّنَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الْعَصْرَ وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ بَيْنَهُمَا شَيْئًا ثُمَّ رَكِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَتَّى أَتَى الْمَوْقِفَ فَجَعَلَ بَطْنَ نَاقَتِهِ الْقَصْوَاءِ إِلَى الصَّخَرَاتِ وَجَعَلَ حَبْلَ الْمُشَاةِ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَاسْتَقْبَلَ الْقِبْلَةَ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ وَاقِفًا حَتَّى غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَذَهَبَتِ الصُّفْرَةُ قَلِيلاً حَتَّى غَابَ الْقُرْصُ وَأَرْدَفَ أُسَامَةَ خَلْفَهُ وَدَفَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَقَدْ شَنَقَ لِلْقَصْوَاءِ الزِّمَامَ حَتَّى إِنَّ رَأْسَهَا لَيُصِيبُ مَوْرِكَ رَحْلِهِ وَيَقُولُ بِيَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى ‏"‏ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ السَّكِينَةَ السَّكِينَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ كُلَّمَا أَتَى حَبْلاً مِنَ الْحِبَالِ أَرْخَى لَهَا قَلِيلاً حَتَّى تَصْعَدَ حَتَّى أَتَى الْمُزْدَلِفَةَ فَصَلَّى بِهَا الْمَغْرِبَ وَالْعِشَاءَ بِأَذَانٍ وَاحِدٍ وَإِقَامَتَيْنِ وَلَمْ يُسَبِّحْ بَيْنَهُمَا شَيْئًا ثُمَّ اضْطَجَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَتَّى طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ وَصَلَّى الْفَجْرَ - حِينَ تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الصُّبْحُ - بِأَذَانٍ وَإِقَامَةٍ ثُمَّ رَكِبَ الْقَصْوَاءَ حَتَّى أَتَى الْمَشْعَرَ الْحَرَامَ فَاسْتَقْبَلَ الْقِبْلَةَ فَدَعَاهُ وَكَبَّرَهُ وَهَلَّلَهُ وَوَحَّدَهُ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ وَاقِفًا حَتَّى أَسْفَرَ جِدًّا فَدَفَعَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ وَأَرْدَفَ الْفَضْلَ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَكَانَ رَجُلاً حَسَنَ الشَّعْرِ أَبْيَضَ وَسِيمًا فَلَمَّا دَفَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَرَّتْ بِهِ ظُعُنٌ يَجْرِينَ فَطَفِقَ الْفَضْلُ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِنَّ فَوَضَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَدَهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْفَضْلِ فَحَوَّلَ الْفَضْلُ وَجْهَهُ إِلَى الشِّقِّ الآخَرِ يَنْظُرُ فَحَوَّلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَدَهُ مِنَ الشِّقِّ الآخَرِ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْفَضْلِ يَصْرِفُ وَجْهَهُ مِنَ الشِّقِّ الآخَرِ يَنْظُرُ حَتَّى أَتَى بَطْنَ مُحَسِّرٍ فَحَرَّكَ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ سَلَكَ الطَّرِيقَ الْوُسْطَى الَّتِي تَخْرُجُ عَلَى الْجَمْرَةِ الْكُبْرَى حَتَّى أَتَى الْجَمْرَةَ الَّتِي عِنْدَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَرَمَاهَا بِسَبْعِ حَصَيَاتٍ يُكَبِّرُ مَعَ كُلِّ حَصَاةٍ مِنْهَا مِثْلِ حَصَى الْخَذْفِ رَمَى مِنْ بَطْنِ الْوَادِي ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ إِلَى الْمَنْحَرِ فَنَحَرَ ثَلاَثًا وَسِتِّينَ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ أَعْطَى عَلِيًّا فَنَحَرَ مَا غَبَرَ وَأَشْرَكَهُ فِي هَدْيِهِ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ مِنْ كُلِّ بَدَنَةٍ بِبَضْعَةٍ فَجُعِلَتْ فِي قِدْرٍ فَطُبِخَتْ فَأَكَلاَ مِنْ لَحْمِهَا وَشَرِبَا مِنْ مَرَقِهَا ثُمَّ رَكِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأَفَاضَ إِلَى الْبَيْتِ فَصَلَّى بِمَكَّةَ الظُّهْرَ فَأَتَى بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ يَسْقُونَ عَلَى زَمْزَمَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ انْزِعُوا بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فَلَوْلاَ أَنْ يَغْلِبَكُمُ النَّاسُ عَلَى سِقَايَتِكُمْ لَنَزَعْتُ مَعَكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَنَاوَلُوهُ دَلْوًا فَشَرِبَ مِنْهُ ‏.‏

Ja'far b Muhammad reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir b. Abdullah and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Husain. He placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was, however, lying on the clothes rack near by. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam). And he pointed with his hand nine, and then stated: The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) stayed in (Medina) for nine years but did not perform Hajj, then he made a public announcement in the tenth year to the effect that Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was about to perform the Hajj. A large number of persons came to Medina and all of them were anxious to follow the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and do according to his doing. We set out with him till we reached Dhu'l-Hulaifa. Asma' daughter of Umais gave birth to Muhammad b. Abu Bakr. She sent message to the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) asking him: What should 1 do? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on Ihram. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then prayed in the mosque and then mounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back at al-Baida'. And I saw as far as I could see in front of me but riders and pedestrians, and also on my right and on my left and behind me like this. And the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Holy Qur'an was descending upon him. And it is he who knows (its true) significance. And whatever he did, we also did that. He pronounced the Oneness of Allah (saying):" Labbaik,0 Allah, Labbaik, Labbaik. Thou hast no partner, praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; Thou hast no partner." And the people also pronounced this Talbiya which they pronounce (today). The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) did not reject anything out of it. But the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) adhered to his own Talbiya. Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) said: We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only, being unaware of the Umra (at that season), but when we came with him to the House, he touched the pillar and (made seven circuits) running three of them and walking four. And then going to the Station of Ibrahim, he recited:" And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." And this Station was between him and the House. My father said (and I do not know whether he had made a mention of it but that was from Allah's Apostle [May peace be upon him] that he recited in two rak'ahs:" say: He is Allah One," and say:" Say: 0 unbelievers." He then returned to the pillar (Hajar Aswad) and kissed it. He then went out of the gate to al-Safa' and as he reached near it he recited:" Al-Safa' and al-Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allah," (adding: ) I begin with what Allah (has commanded me) to begin. He first mounted al-Safa' till he saw the House, and facing Qibla he declared the Oneness of Allah and glorified Him, and said:" There is no god but Allah, One, there is no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty. to Him praise is due. and He is Powerful over everything. There is no god but Allah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone." He then made supplication in the course of that saying such words three times. He then descended and walked towards al-Marwa, and when his feet came down in the bottom of the valley, he ran, and when he began to ascend he walked till he reached al-Marwa. There he did as he had done at al-Safa'. And when it was his last running at al-Marwa he said: If I had known beforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have brought sacrificial animals and would have performed an 'Umra. So, he who among you has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off Ihram and treat it as an Umra. Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'sham got up and said: Messenger of Allah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into another and said twice: The 'Umra has become incorporated in the Hajj (adding):" No, but for ever and ever." 'All came from the Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and found Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) to be one among those who had put off Ihram and had put on dyed clothes and had applied antimony. He (Hadrat'Ali) showed disapproval to it, whereupon she said: My father has commanded me to do this. He (the narrator) said that 'Ali used to say in Iraq: I went to the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) showing annoyance at Fatimah for what she had done, and asked the (verdict) of Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) regarding what she had narrated from him, and told him that I was angry with her, whereupon he said: She has told the truth, she has told the truth. (The Prophet then asked 'Ali): What did you say when you undertook to go for Hajj? I ('Ali) said: 0 Allah, I am putting on Ihram for the same purpose as Thy Messenger has put it on. He said: I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the Ihram. He (Jabir) said: The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by 'Ali from the Yemen and of those brought by the Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was one hundred. Then all the people except the Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and those who had with them sacrificial animals, put off Ihram, and got their hair clipped; when it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Dhu'l-Hijja) they went to Mina and put on the Ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Ailah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) rode and led the noon, afternoon, sunset 'Isha' and dawn prayers. He then waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hair should be pitched at Namira. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then set out and the Quraish did not doubt that he would halt at al-Mash'ar al-Haram (the sacred site) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafa and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa should be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days of Ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi'a b. al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of she pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said):" O Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness," saying it thrice. (Bilal then) pronounced Adhan and later on Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the noon prayer. He (Bilal) then uttered Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no other prayer in between the two. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then mounted his camel and came to the place of stay, making his she-camel al-Qaswa, turn towards the side where there we are rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qibla. He kept standing there till the sun set, and the yellow light had somewhat gone, and the disc of the sun had disappeared. He made Usama sit behind him, and he pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and he pointed out to the people with his right hand to be moderate (in speed), and whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he slightly loosened it (the nose-string of his camel) till she climbed up and this is how he reached al-Muzdalifa. There he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamas and did not glorify (Allah) in between them (i. e. he did not observe supererogatory rak'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers). The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then lay down till dawn and offered the dawn prayer with an Adhan and Iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mounted al-Qaswa, and when he came to al-Mash'ar al-Haram, he faced towards Qibla, supplicated Him, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness (La ilaha illa Allah) and Oneness, and kept standing till the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him was al-Fadl b. 'Abbas and he was a man having beautiful hair and fair complexion and handsome face. As the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was moving on, there was also going a group of women (side by side with them). Al-Fadl began to look at them. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) placed his hand on the face of Fadl who then turned his face to the other side, and began to see, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) turned his hand to the other side and placed it on the face of al-Fadl. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to the bottom of Muhassir. 1680 He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middle road, which comes out at the greatest jamra, he came to the jamra which is near the tree. At this be threw seven small pebbles, saying Allah-o-Akbar while throwing every one of them in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (with the help of fingers) and this he did in the bottom of the valley. He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand. Then he gave the remaining number to 'All who sacrificed them, and he shared him in his sacrifice. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each animal sacrificed should be put in a pot, and when it was cooked, both of them (the Prophet and Hadrat 'All) took some meat out of it and drank its soup. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) again rode and came to the House, and offered the Zuhr prayer at Mecca. He came to the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplying water at Zamzam, and said: Draw water. O Bani 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would have drawn it along with you. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it. [Muslim]

Question: Can extra Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) be offered with an Intention of reward for others including Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam)?

There are multiple narrations quoted above which emphatically prove that Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) himself offered multiple sacrifices on behalf of his family or even us (his Ummah). Therefore, there is no prohibition in offering sacrifices to send the reward of family/friends/relatives whether alive or deceased. Nabi (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) himself offered sacrifice on our behalf so we can also offer sacrifice and make dua for the reward to be sent to him.

Question: Do you have to recite the name of the people who are offering Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice)?

Intention is an action of the Heart and not the Tongue so no need to recite names. But if a person gives names to an organisation or an abattoir for Administration reasons or they read the names out for Administrative purpose e.g. “This sacrifice is for Mohammad Khalid” etc there is nothing wrong with it. This is not a requirement, the mere intention of the person will suffice.  

حدثنا ‏ ‏الحميدي عبد الله بن الزبير ‏ ‏قال حدثنا ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏قال حدثنا ‏ ‏يحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري ‏ ‏قال أخبرني ‏ ‏محمد بن إبراهيم التيمي ‏ ‏أنه سمع ‏ ‏علقمة بن وقاص الليثي ‏ ‏يقول سمعت ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏رضي الله عنه ‏ ‏على المنبر ‏ ‏قال سمعت رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏يقول ‏ ‏إنما الأعمال ‏ ‏بالنيات ‏ ‏وإنما لكل امرئ ما نوى فمن كانت هجرته إلى دنيا ‏ ‏يصيبها ‏ ‏أو إلى امرأة ينكحها فهجرته إلى ما هاجر إليه ‏

Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA): Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." [Bukhari]

Question: During the days of Eidul-Adha is it better to offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice) or give Charity (in general)?

Scholars of Islam have stated that its better to offer Udhiyah/Qurbani (sacrifice). Ibn al-Qayyim (RA) said in Tuhfat al-Mawdood:

الذبح في موضعه أفضل من الصدقة بثمنه ولو زاد ، كالهدايا والأضاحي ، فإن نفس الذبح وإراقة الدم مقصود ، فإنه عبادة مقرونة بالصلاة

Sacrifice at the appropriate time, such as during Hajj and on Eid al-Adha, is better than giving its price in charity even if one gives more, because offering a sacrifice and shedding blood is what is required, and it is an act of worship that is mentioned alongside prayer...

Question: What is the Method of Salah Eidul-Adha?

Covered here.

Question: Is there an obligation to perform Jumu’ah (Friday) prayers if it falls on the day of Eid?

Jumu’ah (Friday) and (Eidul-Adha) prayers are two separate obligations and both remain necessary on an individual. If the day of (Eidul-Adha) falls on a Friday, the obligation of Jumu’ah (Friday) prayers is neither lifted nor reduced and it has to be performed.

Covered here. 

The Month of Zhul-Hijjah and its Injunctions

By Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani

Zulhijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Literally, it means "hajj." Obviously, this name of the month indicates that the great annual worship of "hajj" is performed in this month, which gives it special significance. Some specific merits and rules relevant to this month are mentioned below:

First Ten Days

The first ten days of Zulhijjah are among the most magnificent days in Islamic calendar. The Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said, "One fast during these days is equal to the fasting of one complete year, and the worship of one night during this period is equal to the worship in the "Lailatul-Qadr".

Every Muslim should avail of this wonderful opportunity by performing during this period as much Iba'dah (acts of worship) to Allah as he or she can.

The 9th day of Zulhijjah

The 9th day of Zulhijjah is called 'Youmul - "Arafah' (The Day of 'Arafah). This is the date when the Hujjaj (Haji pilgrims, plural of Haajj) assemble on the plain of 'Arafat, six miles away from Makkah al-Mukarramah, where they perform the most essential part of the prescribed duties of hajj, namely, the 'Wuqoof of'Arafat (the stay in 'Arafat).

The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah

For those not performing hajj, it is mustahabb (desirable) to fast on this day according to their own calendar. It sometimes occurs that 9th Zuihijjah falls on different days in different countries according to the sighting of the moon. In such cases, Muslims of each country should observe 'Youmul 'Arafah according to the lunar dates of their own country.

For example, if 'Youmul 'Arafah' is being observed in Saudi Arabia on Friday, and in Pakistan on Saturday, Pakistani Muslims should treat Saturday as 'Youmul 'Arafah' and should fast on that day if they desire to benefit from the fast of 'Youmul'Arafah'.

The fast of 'Youmul 'Arafah' has been emphasized by the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, as a mustahabb (desirable) act. According to a hadith, the fast of this day becomes a cause, hopefully so, of forgiveness for sins committed in one year.


Beginning from the Fajr of the 9th Zulhijjah up to the 'Asr prayer of the 13th, it is obligatory on each Muslim to recite the Takbir of Tashriq after every fard prayer in the following words.

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar... La Ilaha Illallahu, Wallahu Akbar...Allahu Akbar wa lillahilhamd.

(There is no god but Allah and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.)

According to authentic Islamic sources, it is obligatory on each Muslim, to recite this Takbir after every fard salah. For women also, it is commendable though not obligatory. Whether you are performing salah with Jama'ah (collectively) or on your own (individually) makes no difference. You must recite the Takbir. However, male Muslims should recite it in a loud voice, while females should recite it in a low voice.

On the Eid day

The following acts are sunnah on the day of Eidul- adha:


1 To wake up early in the morning.


2 To clean one's teeth with a miswak or brush


3 To take bath.


4 To put on one's best available clothes.


5  To use perfume.


6 Not to eat before the Eid prayer.


7 To recite the Takbir of Tashriq in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer.


How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)

The Eid prayer has two raka'at performed in the normal way, with the only addition of six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah, and three of them just before ruku' in the second raka'ah. The detailed way of performing the Eid prayer is as follows:

The Imam will begin the prayer without Adhan or iqamah. He will begin the prayer by reciting Takbir of Tahrimah (Allahu Akbar). You should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting the Takbir, you should set your hands on your navel. The Imam will give a little pause during which you should recite Thana' (Subhanakallahumma .:.). After the completion of Thana', the Imam will recite Takbir (Allahu Akbar) three times. At the first two calls of Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting Takbir (Allahu Akbar) in a low voice, should bring your hands down and leave them earthwards. But, after the third Takbir, you should set them on your navel as you do in the normal prayers.

After these three Takbirs, the Imam will recite the Holy Qur'an, which you should listen calmly and quietly. The rest of the raka'ah will be performed in the normal way.

After rising for the second raka'ah, the Imam will begin the recitations from the Holy Qur'an during which you should remain calm and quiet. When the Imam finishes his recitation, he will recite three Takbirs once again, but this time it will be just before bowing down for ruku'. At each Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after saying 'Allahu Akbar', bring them down and leave them earthwards. After these three takbirs have been called and completed, the Imam will say another takbir for bowing down into the ruku' position. At this takbir you need not raise your hands. You just bow down for your ruku' saying, 'Allahu Akbar'. The rest of the salah will be performed in its usual way.

Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha

In this salah of Eid, Khutbah is a sunnah and is delivered after the salah, unlike the salah of Jumu'ah where it is fard and is delivered before the salah. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid salah is wajib or necessary and must be listened to in perfect peace and silence.

It is a sunnah that the Imam begins the first Khutbah by reciting takbir (Allahu Akbar) nine times and the second Khutbah with reciting it seven times.

Note: The way of Eid prayer described above is according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurists. Some other jurists, like Imam Shafi'i, have some other ways to perform it. They recite Takbir twelve times before beginning the recitations of the Holy Qur'an in both the raka'at. This way is also permissible. If the Imam, being of the Shafi'i school, follows this way, you can also follow him. Both ways are based on the practice of the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules

The Urdu and persian word Qurbani (Sacrificial slaughter) is derived from the Arabic word Qurban. Lexically, it means an act performed to seek Allah's pleasure. Originally, the word Qurban included all acts of charity because the purpose of charity is nothing but to seek Allah's pleasure. But, in precise religious terminology, the word was later confined to the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah.

The sacrifice of an animal has always been treated as a recognized form of worship in all religious orders originating from a divine book. Even in pagan societies, the sacrifice of an animal is recognized as a form of worship, but it is done in the name of some idols and not in the name of Allah, a practice totally rejected by Islam.

In the Shari'ah of our beloved Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the sacrifice of an animal has been recognized as a form of worship only during three days of Zulhijjah, namely, the 10th, 1lth and 12th of the month. This is to commemorate the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidna Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidna Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually did so but, Allah Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the logical fate of slaughter. It is from that time onwards that the sacrifice of an animal became an obligatory duty to be performed by every well to do Muslim.

Qurbani is a demonstration of total submission to Allah and a proof of complete obedience to Allah's will or command. When a Muslim offers a Qurbani, this is exactly what he intends to prove. Thus, the Qurbani offered by a Muslim signifies that he is a slave of Allah at his best and that he would not hesitate even for a moment, once he receives an absolute command from his Creator, to surrender before it, to obey it willingly, even if it be at the price of his life and possessions. When a true and perfect Muslim receives a command from Allah, he does not make his obedience dependent upon the command's reasonability' as perceived through his limited understanding. He knows that Allah is All-knowing, All-Wise and that his own reason cannot encompass the knowledge and wisdom underlying the divine command. He, therefore, submits to the divine command, even if he cannot grasp the reason or wisdom behind it.

This is exactly what the Prophet Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did. Apparently, there was no reason why a father should slaughter his innocent son. But, when came the command from Allah, he never asked about the reason for that command, nor did he hesitate to follow it. Even his minor son when asked by his father about the dream he had seen, never questioned the legitimacy of the command, nor did he pine or whine about it, nor did he ask for one good reason why he was being slaughtered. The one and only response he made was:

'Father, do what you have been ordered to do. You shall find me, God willing, among the patient".

The present-day Qurbani is offered in memory of this great model of submission set before us by the great father and the great son. So Qurbani must be offered in our time emulating the same ideal and attitude of submission.

This, then, is the true philosophy of Qurbani. With this in mind, one can easily unveil the fallacy of those who raise objections against Qurbani on the basis of economic calculations and depict it to be a wastage of money, resources and livestock. Unable to see beyond mundane benefits, they cannot understand the spirit Islam wants to plant and nourish among its followers, the spirit of total submission to Allah's will which equips man with most superior qualities so necessary to keep humanity in a state of lasting peace and welfare.

Qurbani is nothing but a powerful symbol of the required human conduct vis-a-vis the divine commands, however "irrational" or "uneconomic" they may seem to be in their appearance. Thus, the distrustful quest for mundane economic benefits behind Qurbani is, in fact, the negation of its real philosophy and the very spirit underlying it.

No doubt, there are in every form of worship ordained by Allah, certain worldly benefits too, but they are not the main purpose of these prescribed duties, nor should they be treated as a pre-condition to submission and obedience. All acts of worship, including Qurbani, must be carried out with a spirit of total submission to Allah, irrespective of their economic, social or political benefits. This is what Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did, and this is what every true Muslim is required to do,

Keeping this in view, we are giving here some rules governing the worship of Qurbani in our Shari'ah according to the Hanafi School.

The Time of Qurbani

Qurbani can only be performed during the three days of Eid, namely the 10th, Ilth and 12th of Zulhijjah. It is only in these days that slaughtering of an animal is recognized as an act of worship. No Qurbani can be performed in any other days of the year.

Although Qurbani is permissible on each of the three aforesaid days, yet it is preferable to perform it on the first day i.e. the 10th of Zulhijjah.

No Qurbani is allowed before the Eid prayer is over. However, in small villages where the Eid prayer is not to be performed, Qurbani can be offered' any time after the break of dawn on the 10th of Zulhijjah.

Qurbani can also be performed in the two nights following the Eid day, but it is more advisable to perform it during daytime.

Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?

Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is surplus to his basic needs, is under an obligation to offer a Qurbani. Each adult member of a family who owns the above mentioned amount must perform his own Qurbani separately. If the husband owns the required quantity, but the wife does not, the Qurbani obligatory on the husband only and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, both should perform Qurbani separately.

If the adult children live with their parents, Qurbani is obligatory on each one of them possessing the prescribed amount. The Qurbani offered by a husband for himself does not fulfil the obligation of his wife, nor can the Qurbani offered by a father discharge his son or daughter from their obligation. Each one of them should care for his own.

However, if a husband or a father, apart from offering his own Qurbani, gives another Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his son, he can do so with their permission.

No Alternate for Qurbani

Some people think that instead of offering a Qurbani they should give its amount to some poor people as charity. This attitude is totally wrong. Actually, there are different forms of worship obligatory on Muslims. Each one of them has its own importance and none of them can stand for the other. It is not permissible for a Muslim to perform salah instead of fasting in Ramadan, nor is it permissible for him to give some charity instead of observing the obligatory Salah. Similarly, Qurbani is an independent form of worship and this obligation cannot be discharged by spending money in charity.

However, if somebody, out of his ignorance or negligence, could not offer Qurbani on the three prescribed days (10th, 1lth and 12th Zulhijjah) then, in that case only, he can give the price of a Qurbani as sadaqah to those entitled to receive Zakah. But during the days of Qurbani no Sadaqah can discharge the obligation.

The Animals of Qurbani

The following animals can be slaughtered to offer a Qurbani:


1 Goat, either male or female, of at least one year of age.


2 Sheep, either male or female, of at least six months of age.


3 Cow, ox buffalo of at least two years of age.


4 Camel, male or female, of at least five years of age.


One head of goat or sheep is enough only for one person's Qurbani. But as for all other animals like cow, buffalo or camel, one head of each is equal to seven offerings thus allowing seven persons to offer Qurbani jointly in one such animal.

If the seller of animal claims that the animal is of the recognized age and there is no apparent evidence to the contrary; one can trust his statement and the sacrifice of such an animal is lawful.

Rules about Defective Animals

The following defective animals are not acceptable in Qurbani:


1 Blind, one eyed or lame animal.


2 An animal so emaciated that it cannot walk to its slaughtering place.


3 An animal with one-third part of the ear or the nose or the tail missing.


4 An animal that has no teeth at all, or the major number of its teeth are missing.


5 An animal born without ears.


The following animals are acceptable in Qurbani:


1 A castrated he - goat. (Rather, its Qurbani is more preferable).


2 An animal that has no horns, or its horns are broken. However, if the horns of an animal are uprooted totally so as to create a defect in the brain, its Qurbani is not lawful.


3 An animal the missing part of whose ear, nose or tail is less than one third.


4 A sick or injured animal, unless it has some above mentioned defects rendering its Qurbani unlawful.


The Sunnah Method of Qurbani

It is more preferable for a Muslim to slaughter the animal of his Qurbani with his own hands. However, if he is unable to slaughter the animal himself, or does not want to do so for some reason, he can request another person to slaughter it on his behalf. In this case also, it is more preferable that he, at least, be present at the time of slaughter. However, his absence at the time of slaughter does not render the Qurbani invalid, if he has authorized the person who slaughtered the animal on his behalf. It is a Sunnah to lay the animal with its face towards the Qiblah, and to recite the following verse of the Holy Quran:

I, being upright, turn my face towards the One who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not among those who associate partners with Allah. ( Al-An'am, 6:79)

But the most essential recitation when slaughtering an animal is: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar. (In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest). If somebody intentionally avoids to recite it when slaughtering an animal, it does not only make his Qurbani unlawful, but also renders the animal haram, and it is not permissible to eat the meat of that animal. However, if a person did not avoid this recitation intentionally, but he forgot to recite it when slaughtering the animal, this mistake is forgiven and both the Qurbani and the slaughter are lawful.

If somebody is unable to recite "Bismillah Allahu Akbar" in the Arabic language, he can recite the name of Allah in his own language by saying, "In the name of Allah".

Distribution of the Meat

If an animal is sacrificed by more than one person, like cow or camel, its meat should be distributed equally among its owners by weighing the meat strictly and not at random or by mere guess. Even if all the partners agree on its distribution without weighing, it is still not permissible according to shari'ah.

However, if the actual weighing is not practicable due to some reason, and all the partners agree to distribute the meat without weighing, distribution by guess can be done with the condition that each share necessarily contains either a leg of the animal or some quantity of its liver.

Although the person offering a Qurbani can keep all its meat for his own use, yet, it is preferable to distribute one-third among the poor, another one-third among his relatives and then, keep the rest for his personal consumption.

All parts of the sacrificed animal can be used for personal benefit, but none can be sold, nor can be given to the butcher as a part of his wages. If somebody has sold the meat of the Qurbani or its skin, he must give the accrued price as sadaqah to a poor man who can receive Zakah.


The most important way of worship performed in this month is "hajj", one of the five pillars of Islam. The Muslims from every part of the world assemble in Arabia to perform this unique way of worship. Hajj is a worship, which requires at least five days to be performed in its proper way. There are detailed rules for different acts of hajj for which separate books are available, and the present article does not aim at explaining all these details. However, some basic information about its obligation is being given here:


1 Hajj is obligatory on every adult Muslim who can afford to go to Makkah during the hajj season, whether on foot or by any other carriage.




2 If a person can travel to Makkah to perform hajj, but he cannot travel to Madinah, hajj is obligatory on him also. He can perform hajj without visiting Madinah.




3 A Muslim woman cannot travel for hajj unless she is accompanied by a mahram (i.e. husband or relative of a prohibited degree like son, father, brother etc.) If she does not find any mahram to accompany her, hajj is not obligatory on her until she finds one. However, she must make a will that in case she dies before performing hajj, his heirs should arrange for her hajj-e-badal out of her left over property.




4 Hajj is obligated only once in one's life. After performing the obligatory hajj; one is not required to perform it again. However, he can perform the nafl (optional hajj as many times as he or she wishes.)




10 Days of Zhul-Hijjah and their Injunctions

By Shaykh Maulana Saleem Dhorat

The first ten days of Zul Hijjah are full of virtues and great blessings. According to a large group of mufassireen(commentators of the Qur'aan), the ten nights mentioned in Soorah Al Fajr are the nights of the first ten days of Zul Hijjah. Allah says:

By the Dawn; By the ten Nights; (89:1-2)

This oath substantiates the greatness and sacredness of these ten nights in the eyes of Allah. This is an extra ordinary oath; it is very reliable and significant and the wise men can understand that by this oath, Allah too attaches great importance and value to the ten nights of Zul Hijjah.

The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam too, has clearly mentioned the importance and the virtue of these blessed moments. It is reported by Abdullah Ibne Abbaas radhiyallahu anhuma that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Zul Hijjah)." Thereupon, some companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, "Not even Jihadd ? " He replied, "Not even jihaad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and does not return with any of these things." Bukhaari V1 pp132

In another Hadeeth reported by Aboo Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, "On no days is the worship of Allah desired more than in the (first) ten days of Zul Hijjah. The fast of each of these days is equal to the fast of a whole year, and the worship of each of these nights is equal to the worship of Laylatul Qadr." Tirmizi V1 pp58

Moreover, what other virtue can be greater for these blessed days than the fact that certain specific devotions cannot be performed but in these specified days. Allah Almighty has specifically chosen these days for the fulfilment of two of the most important devotions, viz. Hajj and Qurbaani.

One may argue and say that there are other forms of devotions too, which are fixed to specific days and moments; hence what is the speciality of these particular days ? The answer to this argument is simple. Although there are other devotions too, which are also fixed to specific time, such as fasting in the month of Ramadhaan; but one may, if he desires, fulfil the devotion of fasting in days other than Ramadhaan i.e. as an optional devotion. On the contrary, the wuqoof of Arafaat (which is the essence of Hajj), the wuqoof of Muzdalifah, etc., cannot be performed but in these specified days.

If one was to remain in Arafaat for many months after the 9th Zul Hijjah, he will not receive any reward whatsoever and it will never be considered an act of ibaadah.

Similarly, Qurbaani is performed only in three days one of which is 10th Zul Hijjah. There is no possibility whatsoever of a nafl Qurbaani once these days have lapsed, so much so that qazaa Hajj or qazaa Qurbaani is not even possible. It is because of these distinguishing characteristics that the ulamaa have stated, in the light of Qur'aan and Hadeeth that after the days of the month of Ramadhaan, the greatest days in virtue are the first ten days of Zul Hijjah.

The reward of ibaadah in these days increases abundantly and the results are honoured with specified blessings and mercies by the Creator.


There are certain specific acts of virtue in these blessed days of Zul Hijjah which are enumerated and explained below:


1 Upon sighting the moon of Zul Hijjah, those people intending to perform Qurbaani should neither cut their hair nor clip their nails until the Qurbaani is performed. This is a mustahab (desirable) act derived from Hadeeth of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam wherein he has said:


"A person should neither clip his nails nor cut his hair until he performs qurbaani". [Ibne Maajah]

Some ulamaa have explained the reason and wisdom behind this order of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam thus that in this month, hundreds of thousands of people are blessed with the opportunity of visiting the sacred house of Allah in Makkah.

They enjoy the spiritual atmosphere of the holy places and acquire maximum benefit from the blessed moments.

Whilst they are there in the state of ihraam certain acts become impermissible for them. Amongst them is clipping of nails and cutting the hair. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam instructed those of his followers who could not reach the blessed places, to imitate the pilgrims by not cutting the hair and clipping the nails so that the mercy of Allah can enshroud them too together with the pilgrims.


2 These days are so blessed that a day's fast is equivalent to a year's fast and a night's devotion is equivalent to the ibaadah of Laylatul Qadr. The indication is towards the fact that we should endeavor to perform as many virtuous acts as possible in these days.



3 9th Zul Hijjah is the day of Arafah in which the main fardh of Hajj is performed i.e. wuqoof Arafah. This is a great moment for the pilgrims when the Mercy of Allah descends upon them in abundance and their sins are forgiven and du'aa accepted. Allah, through His Compassion and Mercy, has not deprived the non-pilgrims of his mercy, but rather, shown the way to His Pleasure. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam was asked about the fast of the day of Arafah. He said, "It compensates for the (minor) sins of the past and the coming year." [Ibne Maajah]


Note: One should take note that the sins forgiven are minor sins. The major sins are not forgiven without tawbah.


4 The reciting of Takbeeraate Tashreeq after every fardh Salaat from the Fajr of 9th Zul Hijjah to the Asr of 13th Zul Hijjah (i.e. total of twenty three fardh Salaat). It is waajib upon men to recite this takbeer once after every fardh Salaat audibly. The women should recite it silently.


5 The Sunnah of Ibraahem alayhi salaam - the Qurbaani. It is to be performed on 10th, 11th or 12th Zul Hijjah. One may sacrifice a thousand animals on days other than these, but it will never be regarded or considered a Qurbaani.


Here, a believer is taught a great lesson that an action or a place or a time does not hold any virtue in itself; but rather it is Allah's command and order that changes the status, level and grade of things. Regarding Qurbaani, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:

"There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Qurbaani than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgement with its horn, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart." Tirmizi V1 pp275, Ibne Maajah V1 pp226

May Allah ta'aalaa bless us with spiritual gains and His Pleasure in these blessed moments. Aameen.