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Madina Book 1: Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Chapter 4 introduces the concept of Possessive phrase in Arabic


Part 1

Resources

Download Book 1

Download Book 1 Key

Download Book 1 Solutions

Download Book 1 Handouts

Download Book 1 Vocabulary

Download Past Tense

Download Present Tense

Type Arabic onscreen with an oline Keyboard

 

Look at the pronouns below and read on your fingers 7 times. Ignore the attached pronouns for the time being. We have drawn a picture for you to understand this memorisation technique even further.

Arabic Practice 1

Detached Pronouns

Third

Person

Masculine

He

Huwa

هُو

Them (2 He)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ He)

Hum

هُم

Third

Person

Feminine

She

Hiya

هِيَ

Them (2 She)

Huma

هُمَا

They (3+ She)

Hunna

هُنَّ

Second

Person

Masculine

You (Male)

Anta

أنتَ

You (2, Male)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+ Male)

Antum

أنتُم

Second

Person

Feminine

You (Female)

Anti

أنتِ

You (2, Female)

Antuma

أنتُمَا

You (3+, Female)

Antunna

أنتُنَّ

First

Person

I

Anna

أنَا

We

Nahnu

نَحنُ


Part 2

Vocabulary

The Prophet

Ar-Rasulu

الرَّسُولُ

The Ka'bah

Al-Ka'batu

الْكَعْبَةُ

The son

Al-Ibnu

الابْنُ

The Name

Al-Ismu

الاسْمُ

The Maternal Uncle

Al-Khalu

الْخَالُ

The Paternal Uncle

Al-Am'mu

الْعَمُّ

The Car

As-Sayyaratu

السَّيَّارَةُ

The Bag

Al-Haqeebatu

الحَقِيبَةُ

Closed

Mughlaqun

مُغْلَقٌ

The Road/The Street

Ash-Sha'riu

الشَّارِعُ

There

Hunaaka

هُنَاكَ

Under

Tah'ta

تَحْتَ

Above

Faw'qa

فَوْقَ

In front

Amama

أَمَامَ

Behind

Khal'fa

خَلْفَ

The Female teacher

Al-Mudarrisatu

الْمُدَّرِسَةُ

 

Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase):

These are two "Nouns" in Arabic with one posessing the other. In English "Pen of Bilal", "Book of Aisha". To convert into Arabic there are two rules:

The item which is the possession comes first e.g. "Pen", "Book". Interestingly this first (noun) in Arabic will neither have Tanween nor "ال" and thats the sign that this phrase is Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase). This first noun of the phrase is called "Mudaf" مُضَاف

قَلَمُ

كتابُ

The item which is the possessor comes second e.g. "Bilal", "Aisha". Interestingly this secon (noun) in Arabic will ALWAYS be Majroor. This second noun of the phrase is called "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه

بَلالٍ

عائشةِ

Recall that Masculine names always get Tanween on the letter and Feminine names always get a single Harakah on the last letter

So together the Al-Idfaha (Possessive phrase) will be:

1 "Pen of Bilal" قَلَمُ بَلالٍ

 

2 كتابُ عائشةِ "Book of Aisha"

 

Please note that I want you to use "Pen of Bilal" in English instead of "Bilal's Pen"!

Exercise:

Translate the following into Arabic and indicate "Mudaf" مُضَاف and "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه

 

a Kitaab of Allah

 

b Rasool of Allah

 

c Religion of Allah

 

d Masjid of Rasool

 

c Jannah of Allah

 

Remember:

 

1 Reverse the order of the words i.e. possessed item will come first

 

a Possessed item i.e. "Mudaf" مُضَاف will neither have Tanween nor "ال"

 

b Possesser i.e. "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه will be Majroor.

 

2 مُضَاف إلَيْه will determine the whole structure being definite or indefinite so check for "ال" on مُضَاف إلَيْه



Part 3

Vocative Particle يا  :

"Yaa" يا is always used to address/call someone who is present and can respond to you.

When using vocative particle "Yaa" يا in front of a single name, you have learned masculine names in Arabic carry Tanween (Dammatain) by default, e.g:

مَحَمَّدٌ

خَالِدٌ

Female names ALWAYS carry a single Damma and here are some examples for you:

آمِنَةُ

فَاطِمَةُ

When "Yaa" يا is added to a masculine name e.g. when you want to call "Muhammad" or "Khalid" one of the Damma will drop!

يا مَحَمَّدُ

يا خَالِدُ

But when "Yaa" يا is added to a feminine name e.g. when you want to call "Amina" or "Fatima" no change occurs.

يا آمِنَةُ

يا فَاطِمَةُ

When "Yaa" يا in placed in front of this structure the Mudaf changes from being "Marfoo" to "Mansoob"

عَبدُاللهِ (Servant of Allah) will become يا عَبدَاللهِ (O! Servant of Allah)

رَسُولُ اللهِ (Servant of Allah) will become يا رَسُولَ اللهِ (O! Servant of Allah)

Adverb of Time  ظَرْف الزَْمَانِ :

Noun through which a time period is expressed are known asظَرْف الزَْمَانِ and they are usually expressed as "Mudaf" مُضَاف which means that a "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه may follow it, the two common adverbs used in our lessons are as follows:

After

بَعْدَ

Before

قَبْلَ

Adverb of Place  ظَرْفُ المَكَانِ :

Noun through which a place or position is expressed are known as ظَرْفُ المَكَانِ and they are expressed as "Mudaf" مُضَاف which means that a "Mudaf Ileh" مُضَاف إلَيْه may follow it some of the common examples are as follows:

Below

تَحْتَ

Above

فَوقَ

Behind

خَلْفَ

In front of

أَمَامَ

There

مَبنَي) هُنَاكَ)

Here

مَبنَي) هُنَا)

Five (5) times of Khabar:

أَلمُفرَدُ Single Word Khabar:

When the Khabar is only one word it has the following characteristics:

 

a It is generally indefinite

 

b It is Marfoo

 

c It agrees in gender with the Mubtada

 أَلبَيتُ كَبِيرٌ

شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ Khabar as a Phrase

When the Khabar is a phrase (more than one word) but not a complete sentence it is called a شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ and it can never be Mubatada although sequentially it may be appear first , below are examples of both:

a  Jaar/Majroor

 أَلقَلَمُ عَلي الْمَكتَبِ

{jb_bluedisc}b{/jb_bluedisc} Zarf

أَلقَلَمُ تَحْتَ الْمَكتَبِ

أَلجُملَةُ الفِعلَيَةُ Khabar as a Verbal Sentence

When the Khabar is a complete verbal sentence

ذَهَبَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ
ذَهَبَتْ فَاطِمَةُ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

أَلجُملَةُ الأَسْمِيَةُ Khabar as a Nominal Sentence

When the Khabar is a complete nominal sentence.

مُحَمَّدٌ أَخُوهُ طَبِيبٌ
فَاطِمَةُ أُختُهَا طَبِيبَةٌ

Sequencing of a verbal sentence أَلجُملَةُ الفِعلَيَةُ :

Usually the sequencing of a verbal sentence is as follows:

 

a Verb فِعْلٌ

 

b Immediately followed by a subject فَاعِلٌ and it is Marfoo :

 

cIf an Object مَفْعُولٌ بِهِ is required, it is next and it is usually Mansoob :

The following verse of the Qur'aan should be memorised to remember the sequence of verbal sentences in Arabic:

[2:251]...David killed Goliath...

قَتَلَ دَاوُدُ جَالُوتَ

 In addition consider the following two examples:

ذَهَبَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

مُحَمَّدٌ ذَهَبَ إِلَي الْمَسجِدِ

In the first example Muhammad is the subject فَاعِلٌ because it appears immediately after the verb  BUT in the second example Muhammad is NOT the فَاعِلٌ  because it appears before it!

Remember the two rules from this section:

 

a شَبْهُ الجُملَةِ can NEVER be Mubatada

 

b فَاعِلٌ has to appear after the فِعْلٌ and NEVER before.

 


Part 4

Remember that Dr Abdur-Raheem doesn't want to have questions analysed!

سَعِيدٌ: أَكِتَابُ مُحَمَّدٍ هَـٰذَا يَا يَاسِرُ؟

Saeed: Is book of Muhammad, this? OR Is this book of Muhammad?

يَاسِرٌ: لاَ، هَـٰذَا كِتَابُ حَامِدٍ

Yasir: No, This is book of Hamid.

 

1 هَـٰذَا is Mubatada

 

2 كِتَابُ is Khabar and also Mudaf

 

3 حَامِدٍ is Mudaf-Ileh

 

4 كِتَابُ حَامِدٍ i.e. the whole of two words "togther" not is Khabar because حَامِدٍ is Majroor and Khabar is always Marfoo

سَعِيدٌ: أيْنَ كِتَابُ مُحَمَّدٍ؟

Saeed: Where is book of Muhammad?

يَاسِرٌ: هُوَ عَلَىٰ الْمَكْتَبِ هُنَاكَ

Yasir: It is on the table, there.

1 هُوَ is Mubatada 

 

2 عَلَىٰ is Harf-Jaar or preposition

 

3الْمَكْتَبِ is Ism-Majroor

 

4 عَلَىٰ الْمَكْتَبِ i.e. the whole of two words "togther"are Khabar

 

 

4 هُنَاكَ is Zarf. Its a word which denotes a position of place e.g.here, there or time

 

سَعِيدٌ: أَيْنَ دَفْتَرُ عَمَّارٍ؟

Saeed: Where is exercise book of Ammar?

يَاسِرٌ: هُوَ عَلَىٰ مَكْتَبِ الْمُدَرِّس

 

سَعِيدٌ: قَلَمُ مَنْ هَـٰذَا؟

Saeed: Who's pen is this?

عَلِيٌّ: هَذَا قَلَمُ الْمُدَرِّسِ

Ali: This is the pen of the teacher.

سَعِيدٌ: أَيْنَ حَقِيبَةُ الْمُدَرِّسِ؟

Saeed: Where is the bag of the teacher?

عَلِيٌّ: هِيَ تَحْتَ الْمَكْتَب

Ali: It is under the table.

Here تَحْتَ is Zarf and very often the Zarf is followed by Mudaf-Ileh whereas in the previous example it was used by itself. Sometimes Zarf comes alone and sometimes it has a Mudaf-Ileh afterwards

Exercise: Write down the answer to the following questions from the Lesson.

أيْنَ كِتَابُ مُحَمَّدٍ؟

أَيْنَ دَفْتَرُ عَمَّارٍ؟

أَيْنَ حَقِيبَةُ الْمُدَرِّسِ؟

Exercise: Rewrite the words as Mudaf/Mudaf-Ileh combination with the correct vowel on the last letter and also translate into English

قلمٌ، حامدٌ

دكانٌ، تاجرٌ

سريرٌ، خالدٌ

اسمٌ، الولدُ

مفتاحٌ، السيارةُ

بيتٌ، الطبِيبُ

دفترٌ، سعيدٌ

قلمٌ، المهندسُ